Historical Research on Zamindar Clans of Kshatriyas of Aligarh district including Hathras with reference to Jadons in 16to 19th century —-
An important effect of the Musalman invasion was the movement it induced among the Rajputs od western India.Displaced from their original homes they wandered eastwards in small bodies and different times ,and many such colonies were established in the Doab .The Dors were almost exterminated by the invading armies and the Badgujars were much weakened , though they appear at all times to have successfully maintained a conciliatory policy towards their Musalman overlords .Elsewhere the fighting races seem to have vanished , and their places were taken by the Chauhans , who occupied the north and west , being led thither by the descendants of Prithvi Raj Chauhan , the Jadons in the south and scattered colonies of the Gahlots , Pundirs ,Porach and many other clans .
The presence of Musalman Garrison’s at Koil ,Jalali and elsewhere prevented the rise of the Rajputs to any eminence ; but in the rural tracts they seem to have remained undisturbed so long as they paid their tribute , and in the course of time they acquired considerable power within the limits of their petty sphere of influence.
The distribution of rajput is very uneven ,they are found in large numbers in Aligarh ,Sikandra Rao and Hathras tahsils ,while elsewhere the figure is small ,except in Khair ,where they are mainly confined to the eastern tracts .they are chief proprietary caste in the district ,and their occupations are almost wholly agricultural ,since as cultivators they hold a very large area ,which they till with fair success.The rajput community comprises representatives of many clans through only a few are of much importance in this district .
Kshatriya’s Clans in Aligarh and Hathras districts—
In 1833 ,the following rajput zamindar clans held possession in Aligarh district ; Jadon ,Chauhan ,Porach ,Pundir ,Gahlot ,Bhal , Jaiswar , Solanki ,Gaur ,Janghara ,Bangar ,Badgujar ,Baes,Kachhavaha ,Rathor ,Dor ,Gaurahar ,Chhonkar ,Tomar and Kirar.
Clan-wise Distribution of Kshatriyas in Aligarh and Hathras District —
The Chauhans —
The Chauhans are scattered all over the district , but are strongest in Khair ,Sikandra Rao and Aligarh , and in former days held almost the whole of the Khair ,Chandaus and Morthal par ganas.They trace their descent from the ancient rulers of Delhi , the ancestor of the Khair Chauhans being Raja Sangat , the great -grand son of Chahara Deva , the brother of Prithviraj ,one of whose numerous progeny settled in Khair.Some Chauhans especially in Sikandra Rao tahsil are descendants of Etah and Mainpuri Chauhan.Bhupal Singh of Khair was a great freedom fighter of 1857 of this clan.
The Jadons —Jadons are descendants of Lord Shri Krishna of pure ancient Yadava race and through him from Yadu of Lunar race .Their home native place is Bayana in Bharatpur district after migration from Mathura in 1017 A.D.Those -living in this district appear to have come from Jalesar pargana of Etah district and Mahaban pargana of Mathura district.Jadons found in the district everywhere , but are far stronger in tahsil Koil and in paragnas Akrabad ,Sikandra Rao ,Khair .There are also found in Gorai ,Iglas ,Hatharas ,Atrauli pargnas also in small numbers.
Some of them (jadons ) are described as Chhonkars , Jaiswars and Porach of Hatharas tahsil are said to represent a branch of the Jadon clan.
Chhonkars are found in small numbers in Atrauli tahsil.Porach are found in large numbers in Hathras and Sikandra Rao tahsils .
The Pundirs are found chiefly in the Sikandra Rao and Koil tahsils .And in the former they hold large estates , their chief families being those of Sahaoli ,Akrabad ,Nai and Bijaigarh.They come in this district from Hardware in Saharanpur district under the leadership of Raja Damar Singh , who established himself first at Gambhira (Bijaigarh ) in the Akrabad paragana .Their fort was Bijaigarh , which took it’s name from Bijai Singh brother of raja Damar Singh.Thakur Mahtab Singh and Mangal Singh were the great freedom fighters of Akrabad of this clan in 1857 mutiny .
The Badgujars —
They are strongest in Atrauli ,Sikandra Rao and Koil , in the last owning practically the whole of the Barauli pargana .
The Gahlots–The Gahlots prince of Chitr married with the sister of Prithviraj Chauhan , and it is to this connection is due the presence of Gahlots in the Upper Duab .
They are chiefly found in Hathras and Atrauli tahsils .They say that they came to assist the Chauhan prince of Delhi in his numerous wars , and reward he gave them over the lands of the Meos and the Dors .Chand Bardai mentions Gobind Rao ,Gahlot , as one of Prithiraj’s auxiliaries .The Bulandshahr Gahlot say that they settled near Dasna under Raja Khuman at an early period .
The Tomar and Jangharas —
Tomars in Hathras ,Iglas and elsewhere ,the total including the Jangharas ,who in early days held most of the Iglas tahsil and claim descent from the Tomars of Delhi.
The Panwars —
They are found in small numbers in Hathras and Sikandra Rao tahsils .
The Bhale Sultan —
The Bhale Sultan of Sasni in Hathara are another ancient clan ,connected with the Khurja family in Bulandshahr , but their present possessions are very small.
Kirars are numerous clan ,and , though numbered amongst Rajputs , are held to be very inferior rank .They are good cultivators , but as proprietors they have lost more than half their villages during the last settlement .They are found largely in Hathara and Sikandra Rao tahsils .They claim to be a branch of the Jadon ,and say that they came from the west ,and are descendants of one Kunwar pal or Karauli .They occupied villages in this district and Mainpuri district since the middle of the 15 th century.But they made their origin doubtful .Some place in Mainpuri district they write their clan sirname Jadon but in Hathras they write Sengar , Chandel etc.
The other clans include the Dors in Koil , Solankis of the Hathras pargana , Kachhwahas of Koil ,Rathods and Gaurahars of Atrauli are also found in small numbers and having probably crossed the Ganges from Badaun district .
Land holding account in Rajput clans in Aligarh district ——
The account of some of the important clans in respect of their holdings is given below .The leading place is taken by the Rajput of various clans , who in 1908 held 293,905 acres or 24.32 percent , of the total area .The amount is small in comparasion with the former figure ,for in 1840 ,Rajputs owned 466,921 acres and in 1870 their possession were 346,648 acres in extent .The actual purchage too of the village communities have been even greater than would appear , since large purchases have been made by great landowners such as the Raja of Awa-Misa (Awagarh) , in many cases at the expense of Rajputs , like Pundirs of Bijaigarh and the Porach family of Hasayan .The possession of the caste are most extensive in the Sikandra Rao and Aligarh tahsils ,but they also hold large areas in other parts except Iglas .
The principal clans are Jadons with 130 ,089 acres ; the Chauhans with 55,156 acres principally in Khair and Aligarh ,though once their estates were much larger ; Pundirs with 40,247 acres ,mainly in Sikandra Rao ; Bargujar with 25,721 acres ,for the most part in Aligarh and Atrauli .Several other clans are represented ,such as the Kirars with 8 ,530 acres in Hathras ; Jangharas with 6,168 acres in Koil ,Gorai and Hathras paraganas ;the Dors ,the descendants of the ancient lords of the district , with 4,878 acres in Aligarh tahsil ; the Gahlots of Sikandra Rao and Hatharas with 5 ,301 acres ; Bhale Sultan of the Hathras , Chandaus and Koil paragna with 5,301 acres and the Porach jadon rajputs of Hathras and Sikandra Rao , who retain only 2,600acres out of their once important estates .Altogether Rajputs still possess 544 villages , with an area of 346,648 acres in Aligarh district , in full proprietary right.
Jadons ,who were not on lie scene in the 16th century appeared as a dominant clan . Later while the possession of others zamindar clans like the Porach ,the Gahlots ,the Bangars and the Kirars were reduced greatly in tahsil Hathras ,their villages being acquired by the Jats and the Jadons .The most populated community in kshatriyas is Jadon in the district who were found everywhere ,but are far stronger in Aligarh than elsewhere ,though many belong to Sikandra Rao ,Hathras and Khair .
They are most numerous in tahsil Koil and parganahs Akrabad ,Sikandra Rao ,Hathras, Atrauli ,Gorai ,Khair and in small numbers in Iglas tahsil also.
Some of them are described as Chhonkars ,while the Jaiswars of the Hathras tahsil are said to represent a branch of the jadon clan .
Among the various landholding clans of Rajputs , the most prominent place is taken by the Jadons .According to tradition ,the jadons held three villages in paragna Hathras , viz ., Akhaipur ,Gangcholi and Baghna ; the villages of Gwalra ,Parai and Palla Sallu in pargana Khair and Shaikha in pargana Koil . But, by the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th century ,they emerged as a dominating Rajput clan of this district .
By 1850 they held
By 1850 , they held 17 villages in pargana Hathras ,gained at the cost of the Porach zamindars ,9 villages in Sikandra Rao at the cost of the Porach and Pundirs , 3 villages in Morthal at the cost of the Chauhans ,23 villages in pargana Koil , 5 and half villages in Akrabad at the cost of the Pundirs and 2 and half in Chandaus in the cost of the Chauhans .
Jadons of Awa—-Raja Prithi Singh ,who made very large additions to the estate , buying a considerable portion of the Pundir taluka of Bijaigarh ,while subsequently he gained possession ,under the terms of mortgages ,of the old Porach taluqas of Hasayan and Daryapur .The Awa family are more money –lender than landholders ,and have always proved severe and grasping landlords .They are now the largest single owners in the Sikandra Rao tahsil .The property in Aligarh district is very extensive ,aggregating 27,906 acres with an assessment of Rs.60,984 ,It includes 30 villages and four Mahals in the Sikandra Rao tahsil ,14 villages in paragana Hathras and one in Koil.
Gabhana Fort—The present fort of Gabhana was founded by Laxmi Raj Singh and his younger brother Cap.Devraj Singh both in 1917 or in 1919. The fort was built at the site of an earlier mud fort .Remains of indigo vats lie in east .
Touchhigarh Fort –— The Jadon ruling family of Bayana /Timangarh ,the kinddom was over run by the first muslim invarders of the country in the year 1196 A.D , including Muhammad Gori and his commander Qutb-ud-din Aibak ,and quite a lot of Jadon princes were forced to migrate in all directions .One such person was Tuchchha Pal , who built a fortress at Tochhi , situated in Iglas pargana of Aligarh district. Tochhigarh was perhaps known as only Tochhi ,for as late as 1873 , the place is written as Tochhi in the Misl Bandobast for the year .The Garh was perhaps added after wards .Beyond dout there was a village in habited earlier than the construction of the fort by Jadon prince Tuchha Pal .The two historical place Mathura in the south-west and Koil in the north-east are situated.Tuchchha Pal belong to Kuderiya branch of jadon rajputs , his other three brothers were Gangini Pal ,Kankan Pal and Ganga Pal .Gagni Pal settled a village of the same name Gangini in presently Firojabad district to which belongs Vijaya Raje Sindhiya ,the former Maharani of Gwalior .She was daughter of Kuderiya Jadon thakur Mahendra Pal Singh of Gangini .As usuall the family descendants of Tuchha Pal ,the founder of the Tochhigarh fort , who now live in a village named Jirauli Heera Singh in Akrabad block of Sikandra Rao tahsil . The fort was taken away from the descendants of the Porch Jadon Rajputs of Hatharas and Mendu .After them it went into the hands of Muslims ,Marathas ,Jats and the British ,respectively .There is an old Masjid in the fort .Remains of an indigo vat lie to the west of the village .
Somna Taluka —
The village was named after its founder Thakur Sumer Singh of Chauhan clan.The Somna taluka in Khair tahsil ,formerly belonged to Chauhans ,but in the troubled times of Marhtta rule during the last decade of the 18th century , it was bestowed by General Perron to a Jadon named Jairam Singh , who in spite of his defective title secured engagements in 1803 for the whole taluqa and remained in possession till his death in 1826.In 1828 -29 Pargana Somana and Chandaus were transferred to Bulandshahr and after 2 years both are transferred in Aligarh district .Before that date a share in the property had been obtained on a decree of the civil court by two relatives Khushal Singh and Ram Prasad Singh , while the remainder was afterwards divided among his three sons ,Heera Singh obtained Birpura estate . Balwant Singh obtained Somna.ChandanSingh obtained Gabhana.
1-Gabhana estate —
Thakur Chandan Singh of Gabhana is said to have distributed 100,000 mounds of the grain to his starving neighbors at time of Akal. He left a largely increased property to his adopted son ,Lekhraj Singh of Gabhana. Kunwar Lekhraj Singh of Gabhana was an Honorary Magistrate for the Chandaus Police Circle .His estate consists of 15 villages and 13 mahals in the Khair tahsil ,two villages and nine mahals in Aligarh , and in pargana Akabad , a fair estate is held by Kunwar Lekhraj Singh of Gabhana ,who is connected with thenJadons of the Sikandra rao tahsil.two large mahals in paragana Akrabad ,with a total area of 18,721 acres and a revenue demand of Rs .41,316 .
At Birpura in pargana Khair resides Thakurain Jamuna Kunwar ,the widow of Ganga Sahai ,of the same family ,who holds four villages and four mahals in the Khair tahsil ,two mahals in Koil and two in Akarabad ,with a total area of 5 ,868 acres and a revenue demand of Rs.10 ,468.
3-Kora Rustampur estate—
It is also in paragana Khair ,is the home of a family till lately represented by Bijaipal Singh ,son of Sukhram Singh ,whose property comprised six villages and two mahals in paragana Khair ,4 ,855 acres in extent assessed at Rs.8 ,705 .
4-AshrafpurJalal estate –
Another family of jadons lives at Ashrafpur Jalal ,close to Aligarh .It is that time represented by Thakur Kalyan Singh ,son of Thakur Bhopal Singh ,who owns one village and ten mahals in the Koil and Morthal paragana and three villages in the Atrauli ,with an area of 2 ,403 acres and a revenue demand of Rs.5,166.
Baranadi estate —
At the village of Baranadi in the north-east of paragana Koil lives Thakur Dharam Singh ,the head of a jadon community ,whose own estate comprises eight mahals ,2 ,791 acres in extent ,in that paragana with a revenue of Rs.7 ,951.There are several other jadon properties in paragana Sikandra Rao.
Captain Thakur Shiv Varan Singh, Superintendent of Police, Orchha .
He was a Jadon Rajput Zamindar of Lodha .His estate consisted of 13 villag
Pachon estate –The head -quarter of a Jadon estate ,some 6 miles north -east from the pargana capital.
The chief is Pachon was Thakur Ramchandra Singh of Pachon whose estate is under the court of wards in Aligarh on behalf of a widow, whose estate comprises five mahals assessed at Rs.5 ,500 in Aligarh district ,as well as a large property in Aliganj .His villages are mostly in paragana Marehra of Etah district.Later on The chief of this estate wasThakur Lal Umrao Singh .
6-Banwaripur estate —
It is divided between two ladies Indar Kunwar and Raj Kunwar ,who pay a revenue of Rs.2 ,148 in equal shares ,while no other Zamindar need be maintained .
Jawahar Singh of Mangrauli in the Etah district ,who owns two mahals in Dukandar Rao paragana.
Jadons of Bisawar—The village Bisawar in Sadabad tahsil now is said to have been founded as early as the 11th century by one Thakur Ram Sen ,a jadon rajput from Mahaban in Mathura district .But his descents have for many generations been reckoned as Jats of the Huga sub -division and they assumed the title of Chaudhary .The village is still owned for the most part by Jats .The old yadava now also known as the Jadon Rajputs.
Jadons of Agsauli –In large commonly owners are Jadons , one of the proprietors being the widow of Ram Chandra Singh of Pachon .
Some of the Oldest and Historical Villages of Jadon Rajput In Aligarh and Hathras—
Somana ,Birpura ,Gabhana , Kadauli ,Kora-Rustampur ,Nandpur Pala ,Mirki ,Nagariya Chuharpur , Lodha ,Haibatpur fagoi ,Gobindpur Fagoi ,Bijauna (The village is named after its founder Vijay pal Jadon ) , Parai , Ogar , Nagariya Pala Sallu , Madaula ,Maharajpur , Gwalra ,Hasanpur , Bhankari , Chilauti ,Arjunpur Nagariya , Deorau ,Hinsoti , Chandpur , Nagola ,Udaigarhi ,Aichna ,Tejpur , Faridpur near Barauli (it was founded by raja of village Bajgari Badgujar clan in Barauli pargana ) , Keshopur Jofri ,Barauth ,Akrawat ( The village is named after its founder Akar Singh ) ,Badaun ,Barhaula Haji , Chaumuha , Aikari ,Mahua Khera ,,NijabatpurBorna ,Keshopur Gadarana ,Hazipur fatehpur , Nidhaula ,Mai , Khitkari , Kheda Khitkari, Sikandarpur Machhuaa ,Barkatpur Harduaganj ,Changeri , Bhunasi ,Bhawan Kheda ,Bhataula , Alahdadpur ,Shaikha ,Ukawali ,Nanau ,Jiroli Hira Singh ,Haidar Nagar ,Dhanauli., Dabha , Bhopalgarhi ,Bamnoi , Shahgarh ( The village was founded by Pundir Rajput ) ,Rani Alampur , Tikari Khurd , Tikari Buzurg , Shahadatpur , Piparganv , Mughalgarhi , Pachaun ,Bilar ,Arnot ,Agsoli , Nagala Khushal ( Hamlet of Pipargawan ,in Sikandra rao the village was named after its founder Thakur Khushal Singh Jadon ), Gopalpur (In Hussain block ,The name of the village was after its founder Gopal Jadon ) ,Akhaipur , Gangchauli ,Kaimar , Barwana in Hathras pargana ( After killing of Harsukh Jat ,the brother of Dayaram ,Raja of Hathras,this village was restored by Jadon rajput ) ,Tochhigarh, Shahzadpur , Jhingura , Thiramai , Shahvajpur , Komari , Khanwar , Balukhera , Mandrak Pali Rajapur.
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Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Sasni
District -Hatharas ,UP.
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur , Rajasthan ,322001.