An account of the Posterity of Yadu dynasty (Jadu-vansha) of Lunar race Kshatriyas—–
Yadu ( Jadu)—–
The Yadu was the most illustrious of all the tribes of Ind ,and became the patronymic of the descendants of Bhudha , progenitor of the Chandravansh or Lunar (Indu ) race.Yadu or Jadu ,who is said to have been the fourth in the descent from Budha (son of Chandra and Tara) .
The chronicles mention Prayag (modern Allahabad ) as the cradle of this race and Muttra (Mathura ) as the capital for many years.(1-4).
It is said that Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati ,the great -grandson of Pururvas Aila (who himself was a grandson of Manu Vaivasvata ) ,the progenitor of the Lunar race of the ancient Kshatriyas (5).Yayati was a great conqueror and emperor (6) and the Mathura region seems to have been include in his empire .He nominated his youngest son as. succeesor to the thorne (7) being displaced with yadu who ,however ,being a strong man ,proved himself to be the most capable of all his brothers .Although given as his share merely the territory watered by the rivers Chambal , Betwa and Ken , he soon entender it into a powerful kingdom (8) ,which probably include the district of Mathura as well.It was Yadu after whom this dynasty came to be named as Yaduvansha .
After Yadus death Kroshtu , one of his son , and his descendants (who came to be known as the Yadavas ) rules over the northern portion of the kingdom (including Mathura ).In this line Shashabindu , the son of Chitraratha and the thirteenth in the descent from Yadu ,was a famous conqueror who brought under his desh many neihhnouring territories .After his death the realm was divided song his many sons which weakened it considerably (9).
About this time the Haihaya branch of Yaduvansis (descendants of Sahasrajit ,another son of Yadu )rose to unprecedented power under Kartavirya Arjuna who seems to have bright under his subordination the yadava realm and at least one of his sons ,Shauraseni , appears to have been associated with the Mathura region (10).
Some twenty (20 )generations after shashabindu lived Kratha ,Bhima ,another important king of the line.Fifth (5th) in descent from him was Dasharha and the fourth from the latter Bhimratha after whom ,ten(10) or eleven (11) generations latter ,was born Madhu (11) .In the days when Rama was the king of Ajodhya ,there stood near the bank of the Jamuna a dense forest ,once the stronghold of the terrible gaint Madhu ,who called it after his own name , Madhu-ban .On his death it passed into the hand of his son Lavana ,who is the pride of his superhuman strength sent an insolent challange to Rama , provoking him to single combat.The god-like hero disdained the easy victory for himself ,but , to relieve the world of such an oppressor ,sent his younger brother , Satrughna ,who vanquished and slew the hain ,hewed down the wood in which he had entrenched himself , and on its site founded the city Mathura.
The family of Bhoja , a remote descendant of the great Jadu , the common father of all the Jadav race , occupied the throne for many generations .The last of the line was King Ugrasen of Andhaka branch of Yadu .Andhakas were the hereditary ruler of Mathura .In his house Kansa was born , and was nurtured by the king as his own son , through in truth he had no earthly father ,but was the great demon Kalanemi incarnate .As soon as he came to man’s estate he deposed the aged monarch ,seated himself on the throne , and filled the city with carnage and desolation .The priests and sacred cattle were ruthlessly massacred and temples of the gods defined with blood. Heavan wad besieged with prayers for deliverance from such a monster , nor were the prayers unheared .A supernatural voice declare to Kansa that an evenger would be born in the person of the eight son of his kinsman , Vasudeva , a Vrishni branch of Yadu prince ruled over Shauropura (identified with the modern Bateshwar ) .Now , Vasudeva had married Devaki , a niece of King Ugrasen , and was living away from the court in retirement at the hill of Govardhan .In the hope of defeating the prediction , Kansa immediately summoned them to Mathura and kept them closely watched (The site of their prison -home , called the Kara-grah , or more commonly Janm-bhumi ,I.e.”birth-place”, is still marked by a small temple in Mathura near the Potara -kund (12).
Impelled by a prophecy that he would be killed by a son of his own cousin Devaki , Kamsa threw her and her husband Vasudeva into in prison where she gave birth to seven children ,six of whom were killed at birth.by the tyrant (13) .But the seventh ,who was the celebrated hero Krishna ,was soon after his birth secretly conveyed across the Yamuna by Vasudeva to the house of his friend cowherd chief Nanda Gopa ,at Gokul ,thus escaping death at Kamsa’s hands.Balrama , Vasudeva ‘s son by Rohini was already there and the two princes grew up incognito among the cowherd boys and girls of Gokul and Vrindavan(14).
In course of time Krishna and Balrama became the chosen leaders of the rural masses who were groaning under the tyrannical oppression of Kamsa.Numerous anecdotes are recounted of the adventures ,exploits and achievements of these Vrishni princes (15).They are said to have received a good education acquired proficiency in the Sixty-four traditional branches of leaning , weaned away the people from the superstition worship of Indra and provided effective protection and relief to those who suffered the wrath of the god materialising in the form of unprecedented rains and floods (16).The puranic legend that that Balrama ordered the Yamuna to come to him and on being disobeyed ,plunged his plunged his ploughshare into its banks compelling it to follow him wherever he went and letting it go only after it had watered the whole country ,has been taken to allude to the construction by him of irrigation canals from the Yamuna (17).
Krishna is said to have annihilated the Naga chief , Kaliya , and to have forced him to leave this region.He and Balarama are said to have killed many Asura and Rakshasas ,foiled several attempts made by Kamsa on their own lives , led a formidable revolt against his rule , attacked him in his court at Mathura ,killed him with all his principal associates and brought Ugrasena out of prison and reinstated him on the throne (18).
So Yadus who are Somavansi (of the Lunar race ) .Mathura founded by Pruruwa certained for age the seat of power .The name of Jadoo (Yadu) ,of whom there were Fifty-Six tribes ,became famous to the world ,and of this race was the mightly Shri Krishna , who founded Dwarika .The grand international conflicts amongst the “fifty -six Yadu tribes ” ,at Kurukshetra and subsequently at Dwarika ,are sufficiently known to the reader of Hindu history ,and may be referred to elsewhere (19).These events are computted to have happened about 1100 years before Chirst .On the dispersion of these races many abandoned India , and amongst these , two of the many sons of Krishna.This deified leader of the Yadus had Sixty thousand one hundred eight wives in which eight are main wives including Rukmani (daughter of the king Bhishamak of Kundinpur in the Yadu country of Vidarbha ) was the senior of these wives( Satyabhama ,Satya , Lakshmana , Jamvanti , Bhadra ,Mitravinda ,Kalindi devi ) . Each wife of Lord Krishna give born ten sons and one daughter , so Lord Krishna has one Lakha sixty thousands and eighty sons and Sixteen thousands one hundred eight daughters .The total childrens of Krishna were one Lakh seventy thousands and one hundred eighty eight (170188 )in which 13 sons are main including , Pridumana ,Samb ,and Charudeshn etc ( 20) and the eldest of Krishna’s sons was Pridumna ,who was married with Rukmi’s daughter Rukmvati , the princess of Vidharwa ;she born him one son Anirudha.Anirudha was married with Rukmani’s brother Rukmi ‘s grand daughter Rochana (Subhadra ) , give born Vajranabha , who is said to have been crowned king of Mathura on Krishna’s death.At this time Yadu dynasty has 101 Kul , which were controlled by their Lord Krishna. (21)This is alternately called Chhapan Kula and Chhapana Karore ,”fifty -six tribes , ” and “fifty -six millions ,” of Yadus .As they were long supreme over India , this number is not inadmissible (22) .Kul-Devi of whole Yadus is Yogeshwari (Yogamaya or Yognidra ).Yadu -Kul-guru was Rishi Gargachary ji ( 21) .Lord Krishna after Mahabharata war reigned with great glory at Dwarika .When the Andhakas and Vrishnis Yadu clans were exterminated in the conflict at Dwarika after end of Mahabharta war and Hari Krishna had gone to heaven ,the tribe was dispersed .
The Yadu tribes expulsion from Dwarika ,the last stronghold of their power . some of the yadus were settiled by Arjuna at Mathura in the leadership of Vajranabh .Some of the other Yadu tribes inhabited ,says Colonel Tod , a tract of the country beyond the North-Western frontier even far as Samarkhand , at a remote period of Hindu history.It is said that this tribe founded Gajni .It is not known when they re-crossed the Indus and returned to India.Having obtained possession of Punjab ,they were unable to retain their hold upon it ; and after a time , passing over the Satlaj and Garah ,entered into the Indian deserts ,where expelling various tribes ,such as the Langahas ,the Johyas and the Mohilas ,they found Tannot , Darrawal and Jesalmer ,in the year 1157A.D .The last city is the present capital of the Bhattis ,one of the branches of the Jaduvansi race ( the lineal successors of Krishna.).(1-4).
There are eight divisions ,or branches of the Yadu race as follows ——(1-4).
1-Jadon (Jadu)—-Represennted by theChief of Karauli State
2-Bhatti–-Represented by the Chief of Jaisalmer State.
3-Jareja&Chudasama — Jadeja represented by Chief of Cutch & Bhuj and Chudasama represent Junagarh (Vanthali ).
4-Sumaitcha –Represented by Mahomedans in Scinde.
5-Mudaich ,6-Bidman ,7-Budda ,8-Soha are Unknown.
Some detailed surveys of various sub-clans of Yaduvanshi lunar race Kshatriya’s as follows—
1-The Jadons– —
In all yadu races , who still bear the Original Title , of which the head is the raja of the petty state of Karauli on the Chambal.This portion of the Yadu stock would appear never to have strayed far beyond the ancient limits of the Suraseni (1, p.73)Their ancestral abodes .They are the descents of Vajranabha the son of Anirudha (great grand- son of Lord Krishna ) ,who is said to have been crowned king of Mathura on Krishna,s death .Jadons were the formidable rulers of the region ,including Bayana ,in the early part of the mediaeval period ( 23).The first historical name is Dharma Pala , 77th descent from Lord Krishna .His title “Pala” has come down to the present Karauli raja.His date is about 800A.D.His capital was Bayana , from which his descendants were driven out by Muhammad Ghori and Kutb-ud-din Aibak who took Bayana and Tahangarh in 1196A.D.when expelled in Dang area across Yamuna to Sabalgarh .After a long period (in about 1327A.D) , they eventually returned their region and established Karauli west ,and Sabalgarh east , of the Chambal .The tract under the latter ,called Yaduvati or Jadonvati ,has been wrested from the family by Sindia .Sir-Mathura is an independent fief of Karauli ,held by a junior branch.(1,-4 ,24 -30).Chhokars ,Porch ,Banafars ,Tak , Badesari , Shuraseni , Khazadas and Meo of Eastern Rajputana ,from Sohna and Alwar ,Sinsinwar Royal Jat family of Bharatpur all are sub-clans of Jadons of Bayana(24).
This Bhatti tribe is a branch of the Yadu or Jadon clan of Rajput who claim descent from Lord Krishna(31,32,33) .It is said that after the death of Lord Krishna ,when the power of Yadus declined in Dwarika ,Some Yaduvanshi families proceeding beyond Indus settled in Afaganistan .But, due to constant attack of various nomadic tribes ,the Yadus could not retain the vast kingdom of Afaganistan and a process of their migration towards India started ( 34).In this process ,one of their ancestor was one Bhati acclaimed as a great warrior ,who conquered large lands.His successors ,taking the patronymic appellation , came to be known as Jadon Bhati ,whose power was paramount in India .Colonel Tod calls them “the most illustrious of all the tribes of Ind ” . but in the Punjab their name has been overshadowed by the Bhatti ,the title of their dominant branch in modern times.Bhatis conquered tracts in the desert and established themselves ,first at Tanot ,then at Derawar and latter , at Lodora ( 35) .Jaisal ,one of the successors of Maharawal Deoraj ,finding Lodora strategically insecure ,laid the foundation of the fort and the city of Jaisalmer in 1156 A.D.The principality , thenceforth , came to know as Jaisalmer (36 ).
Jasawat ,another Jadon Bhati sub-divisin of the Agra district ,describe themselves as emigrant from jaisalmer and Jaipur(24).
Chudasamas ,an offshoot of the Samma-Yadus rajput tribe of Saminagar ,the modern Nagar Thatha in Sindh.They appear to have come over from Sind probably in the 7th or 8th century in Provinces .Their name is commonly derived from Chuda Chandra Yadava a Rajput of the Sama tribe of Krishna royal race ,who is said to have been their chief when they entered the peninsula .Their first seat of government was Vamansthali ,the modern Vanthli and they seen to have hard great ascendance in the peninsula .The landlords or Girdsias of Dholera ,are now the principal representative of this ancient royal race.The Chudasama rajputs whose ancestors received the eight four village round about Sarvi ,were latter on styled as Sarvaiyas .The Sarvaiya rajputs were till recently Talukedars of seventh class in Datha , Aijavej ,Chok ,Jaliya , Rohishala ,Pa ,Samakalin etc in Gohilwad district.Raizadas , Rahs and other are also probably offshoots of Chudasamas . Raijadas are known to be descendants of Bhupat Singh the prince of Ra-Mandlik was given the Jagir of Sil and Bagsara Chovisi . Rayjada Jagirdars enjoyed extensive Jagir in Chorwad and Keshod in Sorath.
The section 9f the Sammas forming the ruling family in Kutch are known as Jadejas or “Children of Jada “.
Like Chudasamas , Jadejas are an offshoot of the great Samma race of Sind.These Samma claim to be the Yadava descended from Sama ,the grandson of Lord Krishna.They were probably driven south by the incursions of the Tartars from Central Asia.They established their rule in Kutch in 14th century and thence penetrated into Kathiawar .In 1537A.D the Kutch was divided between two Jadeja chiefs ,Jam Hamirji and Jam Rawal.Kutch , Morvi , Dhrol ,Jamnagar ,Rajkot and Gondal are the estates , making them predominant Rajput race in the whole Gujrat.
4-Jadhavas of Devgiri—
The Yadus ,or as pronounced in the dialects Jadoon ,are scattered over India , and many chiefs of consequence among the Mahrattas are of this tribe (1,p.73 ,43).The yadavas of Devagiri ,popularly so called ,are known to history as the rulers of the Sevuna dynasty.Yadava dynasty were two ,one ruling from the early capital Chandradityapura and the other from Devagiri (45).Bhandarkar differentiated them as Early and Later Yadavas respectively (46).Devagiri became their capital by the time of Bhillama V and prior to that Chandraditapura and Shrinagara were their capitals.According to Hemadri , originally they were the Lords of Mathura and in time of Lord Krishna moved too Dvaravati and from there migrated to the South with Dridhaprahara as their king.He established himself in his capital is Shrinagara .He had a son called Sevunachandra who came to the throne after his father , and the country he ruled came to be called Sevunadesha .The earliest inscription of the dynasty so far discovered is from Sangamner in Ahmdanagar district belonging to Bhillama II of 1000A.D (47) .This epigraph begins the genealogy from Subahu (who was son of Pratibahu grand son of Vjranabha throne of Mathura after Krishna’s death,)(48) and has the names Brahma ,Atri ,Indu , Pururava ,,Ayus , Nahusha ,Yayati ,and Yadu Then it refers to Sevunachandra .
Many Yadava kshatriy families were ruling in northern part of Karnataka , in Dharwar ,and Bijapur districts in the 9th century A.D (49). Mahasamanta Kuppeyarasa of the Yadava family held Gadag area as a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha I in 865-869A.D.(50).Kuppadeva ,the chief of Mevundi near Bijapur , a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Krishna styles himsel a Yadava family (51).Yet another Yadava chief Mahamandaleshvara Permadiyarasa is known as a subordinate of the Chalukyas (52).He was even entitled Lord of Dvaravati .Another chief , a Yadavanarayana was subordinate of the Chalukyas (53).In the early part of the 10th century A.D.the Hoysalas of the Yadava Kshatriya family could be noticed migrating from the mountains tracts to make themselves powerful in the plains.These different chiefs , all belonging to the “Yadavavamsha “were slowly setting themselves in some area or other about northern Karnataka.
1-History of The Rajpoot Tribes by Metclfe C.T. ,pp72-73.
2Tod ‘s Rajasthan ,Vol .I.,pp.85-87.
3-Census Report of the North -Western Provinces ,for 1865 ,Vol.I.,pp.64,65.
4-Elliot ,S.H.M . Supplementary glossary of terms used in the Northern -Western Provinces
5-Pargiter ,op .cit.,pp.84-87.
6-Mahabharta (Gita press Gorakhpur edition ),Adi-parv ,ch ,75 ,vv .30-32.
7-Ibid ., Udyoga -parva ,ch .149, vv.6-11.
8-Ibid .,Bajpai op.,cit .,p.17.,Pagiter ,op.,cit.,p.259.
10-Ibid .,p.266; Majumdar ,R.C.and Pusalker ,A.D.,ed ;The History and Culture of the Indian People ,Vol.I, pp.282-283.
11-Ibid ,pp.284,293 .
12- Mathura ,A District Memoir ,sec.Ed.,p.53. by F S.Growse.1880.
17-Conybeare ,etc. ,Op.cit .,p.18 footnote.
18-Mahabharta ,Sabha-purva , pp.797-803 ;Bajpai ,op.cit.pp.29-42 ;Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit.,p.298. ,
19-Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society ,Vol.iii.Vide paper entitled “Comparison of the Hindu and Theban Hercules.
20-Vishnu Puran .p.291.
22-Chhapan Cula Yadu .Qu.,Japhet ?.
23-Rajasthan District Gazetteers -Bharatpur ,pp.44-50.
24-Hand book on Rajputs by Cap.A.H.Bingley.pp.81-83.
25-Gazetter of the Karauli State by P.Powlett ,1874 ,pp.1-12.
26-A gazetteer of eastern Rajputana comprising the native States of Bharatpur ,Dholpur and Karauli bybH.E.Darke-Bockman ,1905.p.298.
27-Rajasthan District Gazetteer -Sawaimadhopur.pp.,29-42.
28-Sherring M.A.The Tribes and Castes of Rajasthan together with description of the sacred and operated places of historical value in Raj.
29-Crooke ,W.The Castes and Tribes of the Northern -Western .Vol .I to IV.
.30-Cunningham , Report of A tour in eastern Rajputana in 1882-83.pp.5-7.
31-Ghazni to Jaisalmer Pre-Mediaeval History of the Bhatis by Hari Singh Bhati.
32-Rajputana -ka -Itihas by Gahlot, J.S.
33-Erskine , Imperial Gazetteers of India ,op.cit.,p.208.
36-Sehgal.,K.K.,Raj.Dist.Gazett.,Jaisalmer ,1973 ,p.31.
37-Sharma ,G.N.,Social Life in Medieval Rajasthan .(1500-1800 A.D),Agra.1968.,p.49.
38-Rajput of Saurashtra by Virbhadra Singh .
39-Bombay Gazeteir 8,p.489-90,565-66,.
40-Imperial Gazetted of India ,V.11,p.78-80.
41-Yaduvamsha prakash ,pp.263-287
42-Modern History of Kutch .p.78.
42-Kathiawar ,Vol.III ,p.115,267-271.
44-Kathiawar Gazetteer ,p.22.,135.
48-Shrimadbhagwat ,Dasham Skandh ,p.597.
49-EI ,Vol. XXVIII,p.312
50-Ibid ,Vol.,XIII,p.17.and Bombay Karnataka Inscriptions ,Vol.,I.part.I.Nos.11 and 12.
53-ibid ,part II.No 155.
Author- Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.