A Historical approach of Samma Tribe Yaduvanshi Lunar Race Jadeja Rajputs —

A Historical approach of  Samma Tribe  Yaduvanshi Lunar Race Jadeja Rajputs  — —

Jadejas the ruling clan in Kutch, with a strength of about 18,599 souls, found all over the province and especially numerous in Abdása and Kánthi, are the leading Hindu representatives of the old Sind tribe of Samma Rajputs. The present Sammás claim as Musalmáns a more or less Arab origin. But they, as well as the Jádejás, almost certainly belong to the great Yadav stock whose pedigree goes back to Sámba, son of Krishna, and who are probably the Sambasta and Sambus of Alexander’s (325 B.c.) historians. Early in the eighth century (712), the Sammás are specially mentioned as coming, with dancing and the beating of drums, to meet the Arab conqueror Muhammad Kásim, and to have gladly accepted his rule.³ Under the Sumra dynasty (1025-1315), the Sammás probably maintained a half independent position in the south of Sind, and I would seem at several times between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries to have moved south to Cutch to avoid Sumra tyranny. On the overthrow of the Sumrás by Alá-ud-din (1815), the Sammás, with their head-quarters at Samai near Tatta, became the rulers of south Sind. In the spread of Muhammadan power, the Sammás, before the close of the fourteenth century, had adopted Islám, and since their conversion, though it is still borne by several large pastoral tribes, the name Samma is less known than those of the Hindu branches of the tribe, the Sámejás and Jadeja .According to the latest accounts, the name Jádeja was taken by the

Kutch branch about 1350 when they called in as their chief Lákha, a son of Jám Jáda of Tatta. Whether Jádeja was a new name, whether they about this time became Musalmáns and afterwards returned to Hinduism, and whether these changes of religion were the cause of infanticide are doubtful points. On the whole it seems probable that they were called Jádeja after Jáda the father of the new line of rulers; that they had, probably as far back as the eleventh or twelfth century, been converted to the doctrines of the Karmatian sect of heretic Musalmáns; and that, though the killing of children was no new custom, their isolation in  Kutch was the cause of its becoming universal. Since their arrival in Kutch, the Jádejás have maintained their position as the rulers of the province. A body, or brotherhood, of chiefs, each in his own estate very independent of the head of the clan, though dissipated, thriftless, and stained by the crime of infanticide, they have kept a high name for independence and courage. Driven by the crimes of their rulers to seek the help of the British, the smaller chiefs gained in 1818 a high position in the state. Since then by their idleness, and by the growing division of estates, due to peace and the consequent increase of numbers, their condition has sunk so low that about twenty-five per cent of the whole clan are little more than field labourers and peasant proprietors. It has lately been found that only eleven were, as holders of one or more villages, fitted for the exercise of police and magisterial powers. Sturdy, high featured, and manly in bearing, in colour rather dark and ruddy, the men are chiefly noticeable for their flowing whiskers divided by a narrow parting down the chin, and their long drooping mustachios, which they carefully dress and constantly fondle, and dye when they begin to turn grey. They also wear a peculiar tuft of hair, jadi, behind the top knot. The women, by birth Rajputánis of the Jhala, Vaghela, Sodha, and Gohil tribes, are famous for their good looks, and the care they take to preserve them even when advanced in years.
Jadejas.

Most Jádejás are land-holders, some of them large proprietors, but very many, by want of thrift, and unceasing division of property reduced to be labourers or paupers.”

In their religion the Jádejás, except a few Vaishnavs, and a still /smaller number of Svámináráyans, are half-Hindu half-Musalmán. Like Hindus they worship Vishnu, Shiv, the sun, Áshápura, and other goddesses and the snake, the most gorgeous festival in the year being the Rao’s procession to the snake temple in the Bhujia fort. Of their former Musalmán beliefs and practices nothing remains but the reverence for some Musalmán saints, and the occasional marriage with Musalmán families. They show great respect to their priests, Brahmans of the Rájgor sub-division, and to Bháts or Bárots and Chárans, their family bards and chroniclers. The Jádejás’ names and their ceremonies at birth, marriage, and death, are Hindu. Considering themselves of one stock, the Jádejás do not intermarry, the only exception being that they marry with the Chudásmás, and the Kers one of the somewhat despised offshoots of the Jádeja tribe known as Dangs The Jádejás take in marriage the daughters of Vághela, Sod, and Gohil Rajputs. Formerly (1819) they freely took the daughters of Musalmans, but this practice is said to have now died out. Since infanticide has been repressed, they have begun to marry their daughters to Jhála, Chohán, Jethva, Ráthod, Vaghela, Parmár, Sodha, Mahida, Chavda, Gohil, Sindhal, Solanki, Savaiya, and as already mentioned, to Chudásma and Ker husbands. Among the rich the girl’s father pays the bridegroom a sum of money. But among the poor such a payment is not generally required. Well-to-do Jádejás have little difficulty in finding husbands for their daughters. Polygamy is allowed and practised, but, except that the Abdás and some Hothis allow a younger brother to marry the widow of his elder brother, widow marriage is forbidden. Musalmán historians notice two customs as peculiar to the Jádejas. In any desperate enterprise several of them, wearing saffron-coloured turbans, used to vow to conquer or die; again when the fortune of battle went against them and defeat was certain, the Jádejás sometimes dismounted, tied their waist-bands together, locked their shields in front of them, and grasped their spears. As the governing class of the country the Jádejas have a strong clan feeling, and, in spite of their disputes with him, a deep respect for their head the Ráo. Under the Ráo is the brotherhood, bháyád, of smaller chiefs, bound to yield him military service, on succession presented by him with a sword and a turban, but, except on the accession of a new prince, paying no rent or tribute. On his own estate each of these petty chiefs has, until lately, been independent, exercising police and magisterial powers over his people. Lately, as is shown below (p. 188), the chiefs have been arranged into classes according to their wealth and establishments, and they have been vested with fixed and graded powers. In the families of all the chiefs, including His Highness the Ráo’s family, each son can claim a share in the estate. The younger families of each branch owe military service, not to the Ráo, but to the head of their branch; and, except in the, matter of military service, the chiefs of the different branches have no power over the younger members of their branch. In his own village each landlord is independent. Still the head of the branch has a position of respect, and is chosen referee in disputes. Though improving as cultivators, and giving most of their children some Gujaráti schooling, the Jádejás do not take to trade or to crafts; and from their increase in numbers and the constant division of estates are, on the whole, a declining community.

Of the same stock as Júdejús, the DANGS hold a lower place, and differ from them in letting their women appear in public, in allowing widow marriage, in more freely giving their daughters to Musalmáns, and in more widely adopting Musalman beliefs and practices. Otherwise, except that they are rougher and poorer, they do not differ from the Jádejas in food, dress, or customs. Without thrift or forethought, none of them give their children any schooling and show few signs of improvement.

Of the Dang clans, Abdis (390) are partly sprung from Abdo and partly from Jám Abda, fifth in descent from Jám Jáda, who gave his name to the district of Abdisa; A’mars, sprung from Amarji aro partly Jádejas partly Dangs; and Báráchs, Hindus and Musalmáns from Báráchji the son of Mulváji. There are also Bhojdes; Buttás, chiefly in Abdása and Garda, now Musalmáns; Chhugers found in the west about Lakhpat and Kora; Duls, Hindus and Musalmáns; Gajans, Musalmáns sprung from Gajanji, the fourth in descent from Lakha Jádeja; Gáhás found in Abdása; Hothis, sprung from Hothiji, second in descent from Jám Lákha, found in Lakhpat and Kánthi; Júdás an offshoot from the main clan of Jádejás; Jesars land-owners, mulgirasias, found about Navinál and Berája; Kanaddes found in Vágad; Káyás living about Vadva; Kers (see Hálás), now Musalmáns, land-holders in Pipar and Gholai in Garda; Kandagrás early Rajpat settlers living about the village of Kándágra; Mokás an offshoot of the Mokalsi Rajputs found about Bibbar and Aral; Payers living about Roha; Paságás a branch of the Kanaddes found in Vágad; Reladiyas living about Vinjan; Sindhals, a branch of Sodhás, found in Khadir, Vágad, and Kanthi; Varamais, an offshoot of the Sammas, found in Garda and Pávar; and Verars found about Pávar and Lakhpat.

Samma’s other Branches–

Other branches of the Samma tribe are Dedás, Hálás, Mods, and Ustiyas.
The Dedas’s, or Virbhadras (566), are an early offshoot from the Jádejás sprung from Deda, second in descent from Jám Lákha. They are found in Vágad, Machhukántha, and Hálár. The chief town of their headman is Kanthkot. They pride themselves on the martial and enterprising spirit of their ancestors. Hala’s (1050) are sprung from Háláji, son of Gajanji, second in descent from Jám Lakha. Háláji, after a long struggle, subdued all the villages in the south, middle, and west of Cutch. Jám Rával, a descendant of this Háláji, conquered the west of Káthiáwár, named it Hálár, and made Navanagar his capital. He is the ancestor of the present Jám. Such Hálás as remained in Cutch enjoy some villages in Kánthi and Háláchovisi. Mops (560), the descendants of Mod, the brother of Abda, are land-owners, mulgirásias, in the Modása district. Mod became a convert to Islám and undertook an expedition to Hálár, where he died. His body was brought to Modása and over his tomb a mosque has been raised, where he is worshipped by the Mods.

References–

1-History of Gujarat by J.W.Watson .
2-History of Gujarat by Edalji Dosabhai.
3-The History of Sindh by K.R.Malkani.
4-Bombay Gazetteers, Kathiawar III.p ,554.
5-The Golden book of India ,a Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the ruling Princes , Chiefs by Roper Lethoridge.
6-Imperial Gazetteer of India ,v, 11.p78.
7-The Rajputs of Saurashtra by Virbhadra Singh.
8-Yaduvamsh prakash .,pp.,263-287.
9-History of Kathiyawar from Earliest Times .,p177, by Harold Wilberforce -Bell.
10-Bombay Gazetteer , 8,p-489-90, 565-66, p124-126.
11-Glimpses of Bhartiya History by Rajendra Singh Kushwaha.
12-A History of the Indian State forces by HH Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur.
13-Gujarat State Gazetteers :Rajkot.
14-Gujrat state Gazetteer :Amreli 1972 .
15-Gazetteer of Bombay presidency , vol 9, part I ,p.129.
16-The Hind Rajasthan or The Annals of the Native states of India., Voll.2 , issue I, part 2.complied by Manu Nandshankar Mehta and Markand Nandshankar Mehta.
16-History of the Dhrangadhra state by C.Mayne.
17-History of Sama and Soomra Rajputs of western India by Bipin Shah


Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.-Jadeja

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Pin It on Pinterest

Translate »
error: Content is protected !!