Brief History of foundation of princely state of Karauli and it’s Lunar Jadava/Jaduvanshi /Jadon Dynasty——–

Brief History of foundation  of princely state of Karauli and it’s Lunar Jadava/Jaduvanshi /Jadon Dynasty—-—-

Like the Bhatis of Jashalmer,The chiefs  of Karauli also belonged to the Lunar race Jadavas clan of Kshatriyas of Mathura. It is related that the Jaduvansis , or descendants of Yadu /Jadu ,engaged in a deadly intestine quarrel ,and of them only two escaped the general destruction –Odhu and Bajarnabh .The latter lived at the time at Dwarika .On the behalf of Shri Krishna  his friend Arjuna brought Bajaranabh with some yaduvanshi ladies and peoples from Dwarikapuri and delivered to him the kingdom of Mathura and Indraprastha .Bajarnabha ruled wisely and protected his subjects , and raised a temple in honor of Shri Krishna at Dwarika .Eighty of his successors ruled in succession at Mathura ;but during the reign of the last ,Raja Jayendra Pala  of this Jadu dynasty , may be placed in the first half of the tenth century.His successor was Vijay Pala who may be identified with the king Vijaya of Bayana inscription , dated A.D.1044. So Jaduvanshis of Mathura  claim descent from Shri Krishna ‘s great grand son Bajaranabh ( 1 )

The jadon ,who have nearly always remained in or near the  countra of Surasena or Braj round Mathura (Muttra ),are said to have at one time half of Alwar ,and the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur ,besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra ,the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna ,and portions of Gwalior lying along the Chambal( 2)

Raja Vijaya Pala , said to have been eighty-eight in descent from Krishna  migrated from Mathura  in sambat 1052 (995 A. D.) and established himself in Bayana , now belonging to Bharatpur and in the Mani Hillly region of eastern Rajasthan where he laid the foundation of the fort  and the capital of Vijayamandirgarh in 1040 A.D.This fort was later on known as Bayana .He was a famous powerful ruler and he extended his empire.The Khyata writers refer to his conflict with the Turkish invaders from Ghazni .In contemporary records he is called Paramabhattaraka , which establishes his political preeminence in this line .He may lived till 1046A.D.The fort of Bayana was captured by the Ghurid invaders (  3 ).

Timan Pala an heir of Vijaya Pala (eldest son ) continuously fought with muslim traitors for his control over  Timangarh area.Timanpala was a powerful king of this Jadu dynasty.In the course of a long reign of 66 years he did much to increase the power of his kingdom by constructing the fort of Tawangarh still in Karauli territory in about 1058 A.D (the Thankar of persian histories),  22kms from Bayana and shortly afterwards possessed himself of almost all the country now comprising the Karauli State , as well as a good deal of land to the east as far as Dholpur.His political sovereignty over the wide  expanse of territory is further established by his title of “Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraj Parameshwara (4 ) .In sambat 1147 (A.D.1090) Timanpal died .
The two succeeding ruler Haripala and Dharmpala,who followed Tahangarh ,could not maintain their hold over their patrimony ,partly due to the conflicts within the family and partly owing to the growing power of their feudatories.In 1196 ,in the time of Kunwar Pala , Muhammad Ghori and his general  ,Kutb-ud-din Aibak , captured first Bayana  and then Tahangarh ;and on the whole of the Jadon territory falling into the hands of the invaders ,Kunwar Pal and his relatives   ,went off to the east and took up their abode in Andera Katola  village  in the Rewah State ,with which state the prince was connected by marriage (5 ) .Some historiyans say that when Muhammad Ghori attacked Bayana (1195A.D.) ,it’s chief Kunwar Pal ,evacuated his capital and shut himself in the fort of Tahangarh or Thangarh which he had surrender to after a short siege (6 ).

        Many other  Muhammadan historiyans say that on the capture of Tahangarh , the Jadon Raja Kunwar Pal retired to Karauli area  ,and when hard -pressed by the Muhammadans he retreated across the Chambal to the jungles of Sabalgarh , which the family succeeded in adding to their territories under the name of Jadonvati ,which that district still bears .Eventually the Raja returned to Karauli  area ,where his descendants still reigns ( 7 ).
The government of Tahangarh was conferred on Baha-ud-din Tughril ( 8) .A short Sanskrit inscription dated Sambat 1244/1187 A.D on one of the pillars at the gateway of fortress refer to the fort that above 9 or 10 years before the Muhammadan conquest the city of Tahangarh (Tribhuvanagiri ) was one of the great Shaivite centres (9 ).

     After the death of Kutub-ud-din Aibak ,the muslim hold over Bayana weakened due to the revival of the power of the dethroned Jadon rulers but in 1234 A.D, Iltutamish captured this entire area and  again subdued them by storming Bayana and Tahangarh .The Yaduvanshi dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,again being deprived of their strongholds and territories  ,migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely that a scion of this family established himself at Karkrala or Karkaralagiri ( 10 ).Later on his descendants came to be known as the Jadavas /Jaduvansis /Jadons of Karauli .

     After the fall of Tahangarh (Thangarh or Tribhuvanagiri ) after Kunwar pal ,the other succeeding rulers , could not regain their patrimony .From 1196 to 1327 A.D.the chronology of this line is uncertain .It seems that this period was marked by disorder and that the fortunes of the dynasty had declined for time (  11 ).The territory remained in possession of the invaders for a period of about 130 years when Raja Arjun Pala ( A.D.1327-61) son of Gokuladeva (some historians say that Arjun pala was the son of Anangapala brother of Kunwar pala) was one of the greatest king of this  Jadu dynasty.By defeating representative of Mohmmad Tugluq (Miyan Makkhan) of Mandrayal ,who was unpopular in the region ,he again got a foot hold in his home territory by taking Meenas and Panwar Rajputs in his confidence and captured Mandrail Fort.He further established his authority over his kingdom by suppressing the Minas and Panwar Rajputs and gradually took possession of most of the country formerly held by Tahan Pala.He is also credited with having founded the town of Kalyanpuri in 1348A.D laterally known as present capital ,Karauli town and making it beautifully with mansions ,lakes ,gardens ,and temples ( 12 ). He built the Thakur Kalyanaji on the site of Karauli ,a name which is said to be a corruption of Kalyanaji. and  he so built Anjani Mata temple.In other words we can say that Karauli  was originally called Kalyanpuri after the temple of Kalyanji (Shri Krishana ) (13 ) , built about the same year.It‘s  ancient  name was  Karkrala or Karkralagiri being surrounded by circular mountain ranges  .The town was also known by the name Bhadrawati , after the river , which flows close by.During this period  ,27 kings ruled the land .Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs who claim descent from Bajarnabha (son of Aniruddha and Rochana ,great grand daughter of Vidharv Raj Rukmi brother of Rukmaniji  ) great grand son of Shri Krishna.

    According to Historians the fort of Mandrail is even older than the establishment of Karauli.It was founded by Raja Madan Pal son of raja Vijaya Pala of Bayana.Sikander Lodi in 1504A.D.,attacked the Mandrail Fort and destroyed the temples and built a mosque.
During Mahabharat period Karauli was included in Matsya Pradesh , later on it was under the control of Maurya , Malwa , Yodheyaya ,and Guptas .After disintegration from Mathma , Jaduvanshis recaptured their last territories.
Maharaja Gopaldas  subedar of Ajmer who was contemporary to Akabar received Kirti Chinha and Magara Mishan by giving victory to Akbar over Daulatabad .Foundation stone of Agra Fort in 1566A. D.,was laid by this yaduvanshi ruler by Akabar.

     The worship of Sri Krishna ,in various forms ,is naturally the prevalent religion of Karauli.,the aristocracy of which believe themselves to be descended from the deity .Accordingly we find 300 temples of Vishnu in the form of Shri Krishna throughout the State ,and only 20 or thereabout to Siva and eight to Devi ( 5,14 ).The red figures of Balaji or Hanuman are common enough at the corners of streets or under trees ,and the other deities are not altogether neglected.Indeed ,while Vishnu is held in highest honor , the greatest care is taken to propitiate the jealous Devi , whose temple at Kaila is held in high repute and often visited by the Maharaja.But the Kul Devi , or family goddess of the ruling family  ,is Anjana , mother of Hanumanji ,whose temple at Biswas is noticed under that village .The city contains about 50 Orthodox Hindu temples and three Jain temples the worshippers at which are chiefly Saraogis  , for Oswals there are few.Four out of the 50  are dedicated to Devi  , two to Bhairuji , and two to Baldeoji (Shri Krishna’s brother) .
The Madan Mohan temple , the first in wealth , size  and reputation  ,was built by Raja Gopal Singh II (1781-1814) .This ruler of Karauli earned even more reputation in 1724A.D.During his reign the boundaries of Karauli State extended upto Sikarwar across Chambal River near Gwalior.He was decorated with title of “Mahi Marativ “by the emperor of Delhi.This chief obtained the Thakur ,or idol from Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh  of Jaipur who brought it from Brindraban (Mathura ).Besides the principal idol of Madan Mohanji is of black marble stone  , or thakur ,there are two others , Govindji and Radhikaji  ,in the same temple  ,one on each side of the principal idol.For the maintenance of the temple and priest Raja Gopal Singh II , granted villages to the value of Rs.10 ,000 , which by a judicious expenditure on walls etc ,&.,has been raised to Rs.27, 000( 5).

There is a beautiful places built by Maharaja Gopaladas , surrounded by a lofty bastioned wall with two gates.The Rangmahal and Diwab-i-am inside the place are colourfully decorated with mirrors .The idol of Gopalji’s temple is said to have been brought from Daulatabad by Maharaja Gopaldas .The beautiful temple of Pratap Siromani was built by Maharaja Pratap Pal in the later half of the 19th century( 15).The name of Karauli appears to be justified on the basis of the registration of 205 temples with Devsthan Department.Karauli came under the subjugation of British rule by the treaty of King Harbaksh Pal on 9th November 1817A.D.,with them.Ganesh Pal was the last ruler of Karauli .On 17th March 1948 Karauli State was merged with Matsya State.Karauli along with Matsya Union merged in Rajasthan Province on 15th May 1949.

Views in about the origin of the name Jadon—

The origin of the name ,Jadon ,is traced by  Sir Henry Elliot to Yadu or Yadav,but it would perhaps be more correct to say that Jadon ,Jadu ,Jadava ,and Yadava are etymologically the same,the former being corruptions of the last. Dr Hornle has pointed out ,Jadon might be simply a corruption of Jadava as Badon is for Badava.The word Jadava was no longer current in vernacular speech and had been superseded by the hindi Jadu (Badu).which by itself would not admit of expansion in to Jadon (Badon).

   The tribe traditionally belongs to the Lunar Race and professes to trace its descent in a direct  line from Krishna.Yadu or Jadu according to the same writer ,following Tod is the patronymic of all the descendants of Budha , the ancestor of Lunar Race ,of which the most conspicuous clans are now Bhatti ,Jadeja ,Banafar  Shoorasaini,saini ,Chhonkar ,Chudasama.,Rayjada ,Sarvaiya ,Jadav ,Tonk,Porch ,Baresiri . Jaiswar ,Badiyar also; while the title of Jadon is now exclusively applied to the tribe which appears never to have strayed far from the Limits of the ancient Surasena ,and  they are found in considerable number in.that neighbourhood.The large tract south of the Chambal rever ,called after them Jaduvati or Yaduvati ,is in the possession of the Gwalior Marhattas and the state of Karauli on the Chambal is now their chief independent possession .

According to another view , the word Jadu is also referred as Yadu but the correct pronunciation of the word is Jadu not Yadu.The records of Jagas are written in Pingal Language in which there is the scope of such mistake .The word Jadu became Yadu and latter on Jadav /Jadon or Yadav .Most of the historians write word Yadava for the Jadons of Karauli state also.It is a correct practice .The word Yadavas is anciently used for all Yaduvansis in purans also but later time in Brajbhasha it is used as Jadavas or Jaduvansis and than Jadons.The Ahirs are not Yadavas .Their writing of this Surnames is an incorrect practice.They in fact are Nand Vanshi Ahir.The Nand Baba ,in whose house Lord Krishna spent his childhood , was the friend of Vasudeva a Jaduvanshi Kshatriya  and real father of Lord Krishna.Nanda was a Ahir.All ahirs have originated from Mathura and have spread to Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.People writing Yadav or Jadav in South is correct practice as they are real Jaduvansis .

COA of Karauli Royals…

This COA was made as royal representation/symbol just before Dilli Darbar 1911. British designers visited each n every Gun salute state and in consultation with erstwhile royals and their experts , they designed the COA which was duly approved by British Authorities.
The symbols shown in this COA represents  certain history and symbols. For eg.
1- Tiger is included for supreme Power in the forest.
2- Sheep is in support of a myth in which sheep saved a lone yaduvanshi infant by feeding him.
3- quotation shows Sh.Madan Mohan ji as main diety.
4- Cow represents Lord Krishna’s vow to save n rear cows
5-Moon is symbol of being head of Lunar race/Chandra Vanshi
6- Drum represents famous victory of Devgiri and Authorization to Raja Gopal Das Ji by Akbar, its name is Ranjit Nakkara
7- Crown and Dome represents for Head of a clan and  independant state
8- Deer is Vahan of Chandrama, and Karauli Royal head being Chandravanshi, deer is placed on top.
9- in the bottom , there are Kalash/Shrifal(Nariyal) placed on both side of Tag line, sacred symbols of Sanatan Dharma.

It is important to mention that a chair was also designed  with the embossed design of this COA for Maharaja saheb to be seated during Dilli Darbar, and this chair still there in Maharaja Saheb’s collection.

The COA/Crest/Emblem tradition is from Europe , initiated by princes and warriors right from 12th century and there it is well understood that these are used by particular royals, their successor and family only (16 ) .

Why most Jadon’s names have the affix”Pal” instead of “Singh”—–

The first historical name is Dharma Pala , 77th in descent from Krishna  ,whose title “pal ” has come down to the present Karauli Rajas. His date is about 800 A.D.His capital was Bayana, from which  his descendants were driven out by Muhammad Ghori and Kutb-ud-din Aibak and they were
migrated from Bayana to Tahangarh and lastly Karauli ( 5 ,14 ).
jadus prefer the affix “Pal”,  “nourisher of cows ,” to the more general Rajput affix of “Singh “, meaning lion.They are said to be brave fighting men ,but bad cultivators ( 17 ).
The Karauli family all bear the distinguishing appellation of Pal in token that they  ,as descendants of Shri Krishna  ,are protectors (pal )of cows ,whereas the lion (singh) does not respect the sacred animal ( 18).
It will be noticed that most Jason’s names have the affix “Pal ” instead of “Singh “.It has been preferred because Singh means lion , which ,with All its noble qualities is no respector of cows , whereas “Pal “signifies “protector of cows “, and is thought a more befitting designation for the children of Shri Krishna .Another derivation of the word “Pal” is considered by James Tod , a great authority on such matters , to signify pastoral or namadic ( 5 ,14 ).

References

1-Trives and Castes of the North;Western Provinces and Qudh by W.Crooke .C.A.Vol.III.,pp.38-39.
2-Imperial Gazetteer of India  ,V.15 ,p.26 .
3-Jaisalmer Khyat ;Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol .20 ,38
4-Archacological Survey of India Vol.20 ,p.3.
5-Gazetteer of the Karauli State by Captain Percy Powlett.1874 ,part I ,p.3.
6-ibid .,Vol.V(1957 ),p.120.
7-Cunningham , Report of A tour in eastern Rajputana in 1882-83.pp.6-7.
8-Rajasthan district gazetteers-Sawaimadhopur by (Miss) Savitrigupta Govt of Raj.p.35.
9-Archaeological Survey of India , calcutta ,Govt.Press.(1885) ,Vol.20 .p.9.
10-Sharma ,Dasharath ,Early Chauhan  Dynasties ,Delhi (1959 ), p.105 ,fn .22.
11-Elliot&Dowson ,Vol.V, p.98;Jagdish Singh Gahlot ,History of Rajputana ,1937 ,pp.601-2.
12-Karauli Khayat ,p.and Karauli pothi ,
13-Office of the Tahsildar ,Karauli.
14-A gazetteer of eastern Rajputana comprising the native States of Bharatpur ,Dholpur and Karauli bybH.E.Darke-Bockman ,1905.p.298.
15-Rajasthan District Gazetteers-Sawai Madhopur ,places of interest , chapter XIX  .pp .532-33.
16-Rao Shivraj Pal ‘s Article , Thikana Inaiti ,Karauli.
17-Sherring ,M.A.,The Tribes and Castes of Rajasthan together with description of the sacred and celebrated places of Historical value in Rajasthan.Chapter I.The Rajput Tribes.p.14-15.
18-Chief and Leading families in Rajputana by C.S Bayley ,Jadon States-Karauli ,p.69.

Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,U.P.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
S.C.R.S.Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Raj.

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