Dastane Jadon Rajvansh (Ancient/Pauranik Yadavas , Yaduvansis ) Lunar race Kshatriya’s of Karauli State—-

Dastane Jadon Rajvansh (Ancient/Pauranik  Yadavas , Yaduvansis ) Lunar race Kshatriya’s of Karauli State—-

Karauli State in the east of Rajputana, lying between 26 degree 3′ and 26 degree 49′ N. and 76° 34″ and 77 degree24′ E., with an area of 1,242 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Bharatpur; on the north-west and west by Jaipur; on the south and south-east by Gwalior ; and on the east by Dholpur. Hills and broken ground characterize almost the whole territory, which lies within a tract locally termed the Dang, a name given Physical to the rugged region immediately above the narrow valley of the Chambal. The principal hills are on the northern border, where several ranges run along, or parallel to, the frontier line, forming somewhat formidable barriers. There is little beauty in these hills ; but the military advantages they present caused the selection of one of their eminences, Tahangarh, 1,309 feet above the sea, as the seat of Jadon rule in early times.

Along the valley of the Chambal an irregular and lofty wall of rock separates the lands on the river bank from the uplands, of which the southern part of the State consists. From the summits of the passes the view is often picturesque, the rocks standing out in striking contrast to the comparatively rich and undulating plain below. The highest peaks in the south are Bhairon and Utgir, respectively 1,565 and 1,479 feet above the sea. Farther to the north the country falls, the alluvial deposit is deeper, level ground becomes more frequent, and hills stand out more markedly, while in the neighbourhood of the capital the low ground is cut into a labyrinth of ravines.

The river Chambal forms the southern boundary, separating the State from Gwalior. Sometimes deep and slow, sometimes too rocky and rapid to admit of the safe passage of a boat, it receives during the rains numerous contributions to its volume, but no considerable perennial stream flows into it within the boundaries of the State. The Banas and Morel rivers belong more properly to Jaipur than, to Karauli ; for the former merely marks for some 4 miles the boundary between these States, while the latter, just before it joins the Banas, is for only 6 miles a river of Karauli and for another 3 miles flows along its border. The Panchnad, so called from its being formed of five streams, all of which rise in Karauli and unite 2 miles north of the capital, usually contains water in the hot months, though often only a few inches in depth. It winds away to the north and eventually joins the Gambhir in Jaipur territory.

In the western portion of the State a narrow strip of quartzites belonging to the Delhi system is exposed along the Jaipur border, while Upper Vindhyan sandstones are faulted down against the quartz- ites to the south-east, and form a horizontal plateau extending to the Chamal river. To the north-west of the fault, some outliers of Lower Vindhyan rocks occur, consisting of limestone, siliceous hreccias, and sandstone, which form two long synclinals extending south-west as far as Naraoli.

In addition to the usual small game, tigers, leopards, bears, iri/gai, sdmdar, and other deer are fairly numerous, especially in the wooded glens near the Chambal in the south-west.

History

The Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs, who claim descent from Krishna. The Jadons, who have nearly always remained in or near the country of Braj round Muttra, are said to have at one time held half of Alwar and the whole of Bharatpur, Karauli, and Dholpur, besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra, the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna, and portions of Gwalior lying along the Chambal. In the eleventh century Bijai Pal, said to have been eighty-eighth in descent from Krishna, established himself in Bayana, now belonging to Bharatpur, and built the fort overlooking that town. His eldest son, Tahan Pal, built the well-known fort of Tahangarh, still in Karauli territory, about 1058, and shortly afterwards possessed himself of almost all the country now comprising the Karauli State, as well as a good deal of land to the east as far as Dholpur.

In 11 96, in the time of Kunwar Pal, Muhammad Ghori and his general, Kutb-ud-din Aibak  captured first Bayana and then Tahangarh ; and on the whole of the Jadon territory falling into the hands of the invaders, Kunwar Pal fled to a village in the Rewah State. One of his descendants, Arjun Pal, determined to recover the territory of his ancestors, and about A.D.1327 , he started by capturing the fort of Mandrael, and gradually took possession of most of the country formerly held by Tahan Pal. In 1348 A.D he founded the present capital, Karauli town.
Arjun pala ‘s death was followed by the significant reigns of Prthvipala ,Udaipala and Pratap rudra and Chandrapal.Prthvipal was ,deprived of Tahangarh fort by the Afgans .He failed to suppress the Minas who had grown formidable .Maharaja Chandrapal was deprived of his kingdom by Mahmud Khilji of Malwa in A.D.1454 and was forced to live a retired life in Untgarh.

Mahmud Khalji of Malwa  is said to have conquered the country, and to have entrusted the government to his son, Fidwi Khan. In the reign of Akbar (1 556-1 605) the State became incorporated in the Delhi empire, and Gopal Das (1449-1589 A.D.)grand son of Maharaja Chandrapal  probably the most famous of the chiefs of Karauli, launched on a career of conquest ,which was marked by his success against Afgans and Minas .He appears to have been in considerable favour with the emperor Akbar by showing his valour at the seige of Daulatabad in return of which he war awarded Nandan and a right to own Nakkara -cattle drum. He is mentioned as a commander of 2,000, and is said to have laid the foundations of the Agra fort(A.D.1566)  at Akbar’s request.

On the decline of the Mughal power the State was so far subjugated by the Marathas that they exacted from it a tribute of Rs. 25,000, which, after a time, was commuted for a grant of Machilpur and its dependencies. By the treaty of November 9, 1817, with the East India Company, Karauli was relieved of the exactions of the Marathas and taken under British protection ; no tribute was levied, but the Maharaja was to furnish troops according to his means on the requisition of the British Government. In 1825, when the Burmese War was proceeding, and Bharatpur was preparing for resistance under the usurpation of Durjan Sal, Karauli undoubtedly sent troops to the aid of the latter ; but on the fall of that fortress in 1826 the Maharaja made humble professions of submission, and it was deemed unnecessary to take serious notice of his conduct.

The next event of any importance was the celebrated Karauli adoption case. Narsingh Pal, a minor, became chief in 1850, and died in 1852, having adopted a day before his death a distant kinsman, named Bharat Pal. It was first proposed to enforce the doctrine of 1 lapse,’ but finally the adoption of Bharat Pal was recognized. In the meantime a strong party had been formed in favour of Madan Pal, a nearer relative, whose claim was supported by the opinions of several chiefs in Rajputana. An inquiry was ordered ; and it was ascertained that the adoption of Bharat Pal was informal, by reason of the minority of Narsingh Pal and the omission of certain necessary ceremonies. As Madan Pal was nearer of kin than Bharat Pal and was accepted by the Ranis, by nine of the most influential Thakurs, and by the general feeling of the country, he was recognized as chief in 1854. During the Mutiny of 1857 he evinced a loyal spirit and sent a body of troops against the Kotah mutineers ; and for these services he was created a G.C.S.I., a debt of 1-2 lakhs due by him to the British Government was remitted, a dress of honour conferred, and the salute of the Maharajas of Karauli was permanently increased from 15 to 17 guns. The usual sanad guaranteeing the privilege of adoption to the rulers of this State was granted in 1862, and it is remarkable that the last seven chiefs have all succeeded by adoption.

Maharaja Bhanwar Pal,  ruler of Karauli was born in 1864, was installed in 1886, obtained full powers in 1889, and, after receiving a K.C.I.E. in 1894, was made a G.C.I.E. in 1897. The nobles are all Jadon Rajputs connected with the ruling house, and, though for the most part illiterate, are a powerful body in the State, and until quite recently frequently defied the authority of the Darbar. The chief among them are Hadoti, Amargarh, Inaiti, Raontra, and BarthQn, and they are called Thekanaddrs. The Rao of Hadoti is looked upon as the heir to the Karauli gaddi, when the ruling chief is without sons.

References—-
Gazetter of the Karauli State by Percy Powlett ,1874 .
2-The Chiefs and Leading Families in Rajputana by C.S.Bayley.
3-Rajasthan Through the Ages by Sharma ,Dasharath ,. 1966 ,. page 697-698.
4-A Comprehensive History of India Vol V ,
5-Early Chauhan Dynasties,Delhi (1959)  by Sharma , Dasharatha .
6-Rajasthan District Gazetteers :Sawai madhopur by Savitri Gupta ..
7-Veer Vinod by Kaviraja Shyamal Das .
8-Rajputana ka Itihaas by Mm.G.H.Ojha.
9Rajputane-ka -Itihas by J.S.Gahlot.

Author. -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Aadmi
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College Sawai madhopur ,Rajasthan ,322001.

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