Glorious History of Bayana Fort ( ancient Santipur /Shripatha /Vijayamandirgarh /Vijaygarh ) of Jadavas /Jaduvansis /Jadons /Surasenas clan Rulers of Mathura—–
Bayana is situated about 48 Ka to the south -west of Bharatpur.In early times ,it was known by various names ,which were probably kept under different ruling dynasties.Its very old name is said to be Santipura ,which is said to have been built by an ancient dynasty of the kings ,who were the descendants of Banasur the son of raja Bali.The fort appears either to have been renewed ,or at least occupied ,shortly after the commencement of the Christian era ,by raja named Vishnu Vardhana , whose named found in an ancient inscription on a stone lat ,or monolith puller ,still standing in the fort.This inscription was dated in the year 428.If this date referred to the Samva
t of Vikramaditya ,it would be equivalent to A.D.371.
In the two inscriptions of the 11th century ,it’s name Sripatha is given.This name was retained up to the 15thcentury ,as is clear from the Prasasti of a copy of the Atmaprabadhana.It was also known by the name of Vijaymandiragarh , after its ruler Bija Pala ,or Vijay Pal or Vijaya Pala ,who is said to have rebuilt and added to the fort in 11th century A .D. Vijay Pal was of the Yadu /Jadu line of the Lunar race ,and he was son of Jayendra Pala ,the king of Mathura .It was famous by the name of Bayana in the 12th century A.D as is known from the Muslim sources . During the Muslim period , Sultanakot was the Mohammedan name of the new city of Bayana , and the place was afterwards known by the double name of Bayana Sultanakota .In the inscriptions of the 15th ,16th and 17th century ,it’s name is mentioned as Brahmavada.
The fort of Vijayamandargarh ,which is attributed to Vijay Pala ,one of the Jadon Rajas ,who was reigning in Samvat 1100 , or A.D.1043 .The fortress of Vijayamandargarh stands on the eastern end of a short range of hills , which runs nearly perpendicular to the sandstone ranges of Karauli , Ruphas and Fatehpur-Sikri.Between them flows the clear stream of the Gambhir river (formerly a tributary of Banganga ) , which at some former period is said to have washed the foot of the Bijaygarh hill.At the time of Muhammadan conquest of Northern India ,Bayana was the capital of the Jadon or Jaduvansis Rajputs , who of course claim descent from Shri Krishna.Bayana ruler Vijayapala .
Maharaja Vijaypala ruler of Bayana—
Raja Vijaya Pal of Jadon race ,who founded the fort of Vijayamandargarh of Bayana had participated in the battles fought in the regions of Turan , Iran ,Rum , Avar and Turkistan .He defeated several Tigins and Amirs and raised the high flag of “Hindwan ” in foreign countries.He suppressed the rebellions and conquered the land of Kabul , Kandhar , Bangas And Khurasan.It is difficult to believe that a king from place like Bayana or Vijaygarh had conquered all such described lands and powers ; however , in all probabilities he seems to have participated in all these battles on behalf of a powerful king . Vijaya Pal was contemporary of both Mahmud and his son Ma’sud .
People of Jadon or Jadam race are ,generally , credited as natives of Mathura and Saurashtra regions.However , literacy source of Jadon race also recommend about their large settlements in Gandhar , Kabul and Zabul region . Migration of Jadon or Jadam people in large number towards Rajasthan and it’s adjoining regions actually started after Arab and Turk invasions over the frontier regions ,especially after their conquests of Sistan -Zabul , Kabul and Gandhar regions in seventh -eighth century . Bhatis of Jaisalmer are also offshoots of Jadom or Jadons , who according to their family accounts once ruled over the territory of western Punjab And Ghazna .Literary and epigraphic sources also support the rule of ancient Yadava /Jadava or Jadon in Mathura,Dang and Mewat regions of Rajasthan either as independent or feudatories of Partihar and Parmars though in the genealogical sketch of Jadavas of Karauli ,it is mentioned that one Dharmpal of the family in 810C E had migrated from Dwarika?(Saurashtra)and conquered the land of Bayana and Mewat the time of Dharmpal Mewat was under the possession of Paramars.But something like real history begins with Dharmpala ,the 77th in decent from Krishna according to the lists of the chroniclers .He is the frist who bears the name of Pala ,which has descended in the family of the Karauli Raja to the present day.His probable date is about 800 A.D.He and his successors are said to have resided in.Bayana.History of the next seven successors of Dharmpala ,again ,not clear .But during the time of Jitpal (Jaipal or Jai Indrapala),,father of Vijayapala ,Mewat came under the control of Nikumbh Rajputs .We cannot ascertain that before 1036 C E Vijay Pal had any claim over the region of Bayana or Mewat .From Ingnoda inscription of V S1190 it appears that until the commencement of twelfth century Partihars of Kanauj continued to exercise their political influence over Bayana and Mewat .It is possible that in the initial years of his reign over Vijaygarh or Bayana ,Vijaypal might have accepted the suzerainty of Partihars of Kanauj
Most of the historians begin the account of erstwhile Karauli state of Rajasthan with the accession of Vijaypala of Jadon race at Vijaygarh or Bayana .Chroniclers do not shed light on his early career however ,it seem that he came from Mathura to the hill Maani ,where in Sambat 1052 (A.D. 995) and he repaired the fort of Bijayagarh ,under the protecting shadow of which the well -known town of Bayana (Biana) now in Bharatpur territory sprung up. He ,in.the last years of his reign had suffered defeat from the forces of Ghaznavids and thereafter his successors shifted to the new fort of Timangarh.But there ,too ,they could not sit in peace and Ghurids forced them to move elsewhere.Finally in the beginning of fourteenth century they could find their home in the place at Karauli .The couplet (Chhapaya),part of the account entitled as “Jadon Vanshiyonka Itihas;mentions that the king Vijaypal in 1036 C E became independent and assumed the designation of “Tigin;He used the title of “Tigin”in the sense of Chhatrapati . Generally this title of “Tigin”for chiefs and rulers remained popular in the frontier regions and Khurasan.This development clearly suggests about the different kind of political background Vijaypala had passessed.He became independent in the sixth year of the reign of Ma,sud.Bayana inscription of V S 1100further confirmed his position as independent ruler .In the fifth year of his reign Ma’sud had demanded money from Mahmudiyans and they in protest left his kingdom.According chroniclers Vijaypal after his accession faced the invasion of ane Ali(Abu’Ali, Kotwal of Ghazna) but succeeded in repulsing himn.It appears that at first Abu’Ali might have tried to persuade Bijji Rai or Vijaypal to accompany him back to Ghana or return the money which he had received from Muhammad.But after finding that his efforts are not bringing desirable results he decided to attack Bayana.However ,Vijaypal remained successful in defending his citadel.The enmity aroused between Sultan and his old noble did not stopped there.
During the reign of Mausud ,son and successor of Ma’Sud , the Kotwal of Kandhar (Ghazna), Abu Bakr in 1046 C E invaded the principality of Vijaygarh and couquered it.Vijaypal was killed in the battle and women of Royal House hold performed JAUHAR.Perhaps ,Abu Bakr was son and successor of Abu’Ali.Thereafter the family of raja Vijaypal of Bayana moved to Tahangarh or Timangarh.
In the meanwhile ,according to his chroniclers Vijaypal after the accession followed a vigorous policy towards his neighboring powers and fought several battles with Chalukyass of Gujrat,Guhilots of Mewar ,Tanwars of Delhi,Johiyas of Jangaldesh ,Parihars of Mandor ,Chauhans of Ajmer ,along with powers of Panchal and Marudesh.Chroniclers also admit that his victory over Chalukyas proved disastrous for him because it alarmed the Ghaznavids .In order to eliminate the possibilities of his growing power they attacked Vijaygarh and killed him.It is interesting to note that.these chroniclers who described the.battles which he fought in his neighborhood in India also first provide the account of his military engagement taken place in Afghanistan,Turkistan ,Persia and Central Asia.R.However ,modern writers select his activities attempted only in India.The details of the early career of his life quite prove that Vijaypala of Bayana served the court of Mahmud and afterwards his son Ma’Sud.In contemporary records Raja Vijaypala is called Paramabhattaraka which established his political preeminence in this line .He may have lived till Sambat 1093
Vijayapala is said to have been killed about the middle of the 11th century in the battle with Masud Salar ,a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni ,and the fort was taken . Thereafter , it was soon recovered by Jadon Rajputs , only however , to be again stormed successfully by Abu Bakr Kandahari , whose tomb is still pointed out in the vicinity. In the year 1113 ,early on a Monday morning , Vijayamandargarh was crushed by Abubakr of Kandahar . Thenceforward , it seems to have been held by whatever dynasty ruled in Delhi .Bayana had the honour of being attacked by Muhammad Ghori accompanied by Kutb-ud-din Aibak in A.H.592 = A.D.1195 /1196.The Raja named Kunwar Pala , as given by Elliot , retired to Tahangarh ,where he was followed by the conquerors.The government of the country was given to Baha-ud-din Tughril ;but , “as he and his army did not like to reside in the fort of Thangar , he founded the city of Sultankot , in the terriotory of Bayana , and made it the place of his residence .” Sultankot was the Muhammadan name of the new city of Bayana ,and the place was afterwards known by the double name of Bayana-Sultankot.
After Mohammad Ghori took it in1196 ,Sikandar Lodi took Vijayamandargarh in 1492 A D.Babar , writing in 1526 , described it as one of the most famous forts in India and his son Humayun took it from the Lodis in 1535.Ain-i-Akabari mentioned that in former times Bayana was the capital of a provinces of which Agra was but a dependent village .
This fort contains several temples and a red sandstone pillar bearing an inscription of Vishnuvardhana ,a tributary of Samudragupta .
There is an old Usha temple , which was built during the reign of Raja Laxman Sen ,in 956 A.D., or Samvat 1012 by his wife .
Bayana is a curious medley of Hindu and Mohammedan relics ,the most important being a red sandstone pillar called Bhim Lat.This monolith gillar , which bears many inscriptions , can be seen from a distance .There are many tombs scattered about in the neighbourhood of the town .Of the Bayana , Abul Fazl says : “This town is the burial place of many illustrious men ” .It seems that several important battles were fought here.
An inscription of Akabar from Bayana is a new record of the monarch’s journey through Bayana in A.H.1010 or A.D.1601-02.After his conquest of Khandesh .It was engrated by the celebrated noble and literature of Mughal court ,Mir Mohammed Masum .
Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
Associate Prof.in Agriculture
S.C.R.S.Govt.College Sawaimadhopur ,Raj.
National Media Prabhari
Akhil Bhartiya Kshatriya Mahasabha.