Glorious History of Lunar race Jadavas/Jaduvansis /Jadons /Surasenas clan of Kshatriya Ruler of Mathura /Mahaban—-

Glorious History of Lunar race Jadavas/Jaduvansis /Jadons /Surasenas clan of Kshatriya Ruler of Mathura /Mahaban—-

Mahaban —-

The Jadavas or Jaduvansis from the death of Lord Krishna as per the Purans and Brahmans have been ruling in Mathura (Mahaban )-Bayana region. After  death of Krishna his great grand son Vajranabh become the ruler of Mathura . His descendants were migrated in different part of country .They migrated from Mathura to Bayana in Muhammad Gazanavi  period.From Bayana only the other Jaduvanshi rulers spread all over India taking the worship of Lord Krishna with them.That is why Lord Krishna is worshiped most in India.

The town of Mahaban lies on left bank of the Jamuna river ,about 12.87 km .south-east of Mathura and 1.61 km .south-east of Gokul on the Mathura-Sadabad .It probably derived it’s name from the fact that once there was a large forest (Maha-vana ) in this locality.It is said to have been founded by Nanda (Krishna’s foster father) some time before Krishna’s birth.Legend connects Mahaban and Mathura as Krishna was born at the latter place and was brought up at the former.As per Brahman Jagas (Geneology Keepers ) , According to Karauli Khyat , Maharaja Ichchhapala was ruler of Mathura in Samvat 936 ( 879 A.D ) .He has two sons Brahmapala and Vinayapala .The descents of Vinaypala were called Banaphar Jadvas  of Mahoba .After the death of Brahmapala his son Jaiyendrapala (Indrapala ) in Samvat 1023 (936 A.D.) obtained Mathura Gaddi. He was died on Samvat 1049 Kartik sudi 11 .Raja Jaiyendra Pala or Jaitra pala the 87th ruler in line from Lord Krishna of Jadu-Kul ruled over Bayana – Mathura-Mahaban region in the beginning of 11th century.He has 11 sons in which elder son was Vijyapala .

The word Jadava/Jadus /Jaduvansis /Jadon

The word Jadu is also referred as Yadu but the correct pronunciation of the word is Jadu not Yadu.The records of Jagas are written in Pingal Language in which there is the scope of such mistake .The word Jadu became Yadu and latter on Jadav /Jadon or Yadav .Most of the historians write word Yadava for the Jadons of Karauli state also.It is a correct practice .The word Yadavas is anciently used for all Yaduvansis in purans also but later time in Brajbhasha it is used as Jadavas or Jaduvansis and than Jadons.The Ahirs are not Yadavas .Their writing of this Surnames is an incorrect practice.They in fact are Nand Vanshi Ahir.The Nand Baba ,in whose house Lord Krishna spent his childhood , was the friend of Vasudeva a Jaduvanshi Kshatriya  and real father of Lord Krishna.Nanda was a Ahir.All ahirs have originated from Mathura and have spread to Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.People writing Yadav or Jadav in South is correct practice as they are real Jaduvansis .

Surasena Country /Janpada —

In the ancient times the whole of the country lying between the Arabali.hills of Alwar and the river Jumna was divided between Matsya on the west and Surasena on the east border.Kaman ,Mathura ,and Bayana were all in.Surasena Janpada.The Surasenas were Jadavas ,or Jadovanshi to which race belonged both Krishna and antagonist Kansa ,the king of Mathura.
The Surasenas had a sepatate dialect ,known in ancient times as the Suraseni ,just as their descendants ,the present people of Braj ,have their own diatect of Braj Bhasha ,At the time of Alexander’s invasion the Surasenas worshipped a God whom the Greeks identified with Herakles.Their chief towns were Methora and  Kleisoboras,or Mathura and Krishnapura ,between which flowed the river Jomanes or Jumna .
During the long period  of 13centuries between the expeditions of Alexander the Great and Mahmud of Ghazni , the political changes of Mathura were even greater than the religious ones.The old Jadava or Jaduvansi line of princes had first succumbed to the power of the great Maurya dynasty of Magadha , and was afterwards overwhelmed by an irruption of the Indo-Scythians , who ,about the beginning of the Christian era ,established themselves firmly in Mathura ,under the Satraps Rajubul and his son Saudasa .During the Whole or the greater part of the first two centuries of the Christian era ,Mathura formed the most eastern province of the great Indo-Scythian empire of Kanishka and his successors Huvishka and Vasudeva . Early in the third century A.D., as soon as the Kushana rulers showed signs of weakness ,there were revolt simultaneously in several parts of the country and Nagas ,certain republican trives and local dynasties together pulled down the once mighty edifice of the Kushana Empire.The last Naga king of Mathura was probably Ganapatinga .He was overthrown by the Gupta emperor Samudragupta about the middle of the fourth century A D.
The country of Surasena then fell under the powerful  sway of the Gupta dynasty .After its conquest by Sammudragupta Mathura began to decline and it creased to be the capital of an empire  or even of anindependent kingdom.
The Mathura region was annexed to the Gupta empire but the form of government established is not known.(1). A line of princes ,probably belonging to the Jadava clan ,seems to have been ruling at Bayana (in the adjoining district of Bharatpur ) from some time in the third to about the close of the fourth century {as I’d attested to by an inscription dated Samvat  428(371 A.D.) discovered there }(2).Which might have held the whole  or a part of the Mathura district as a feudatory of the Guptas.

   During the reign of Harsha the Chinese pilgrim , Hiuen Tsang (629-645 A.D.) came to Mathura towards the end of 643A.D.,which he calls Mo-tu-lo (3) .He describes the country of Mathura as being over 5 ,000 li (about 1450 km.)and it’s capital over 20 li (about 6km.) In circuit.The soil he says ,was very fertile and agriculture was the chief business .He probably did not visit the capital (Mathura) and made only a hurried journey across a part of this tract(4) .The reference to the local king occurs only in a short statement : ,the king and his statesmen devote themselves to good works ,his name not even being mentioned (5) but he might have been the Shurasena king , Phakka ,or his son and successor , Kulabhata or the latter’s son and successor , Ajita (6).The extent of the Mathura kingdom at that time appears to have stretched beyond the western , southern and eastern borders of the present district (7).

  The Mathura region was not included in the domains of the emperor Harsha (606-647A.D.)although it’s kings might have offered to become his allies at the very beginning of his reign in consequence of which he seems to have allowed the Mathura kingdom to continue to exist .(8).The Harsha era also began to be used in  Mathura probably from this time onwards (9).  After Harsha’s death (circa 647A.D.) his empire broke up and a period of about half a century of anarchy and darkness prevailed in northern India (8) which  however ,hardly seems  to have affected the Mathura kingdom which was probably being governed by the Shurasena kings , Ajita , Durgabhata ,and  Durgadama successively (9 ).About this time a prince , Jinadatta ,the son of a ruler of Mathura  and a Jain ,is said to have migrated to Humchcha in South India and to have founded a kingdom and the royal house of the Santars there ( 10).

Towards the close of the 7th or the beginning of the 8th  century  ,King Yashovarman of Kannauj (circa 690-740 A.D.) rose to power and became the Lord of the whole of Northern India.(11) .He seems to have conquered the kingdom of Mathura also but perhaps allowed it’s Shurasena kings  ,probably Devaraj and Vatsadaman , to continue as his feudatories . The last prince of this line was perhaps Vatsadaman’s son Anyadama (12 ).According to Kalhana’s Rajataringini , the king of Kashmir temporarily  conquered the kingdom of Yashovarman (including Mathura ) (13 ) and the same work mentions that a little later (about the close of the 8th century ) a temple was built (in Kashmir ) by the son-in-low  of the then ruler of Mathura (14) .It clearly indicates that the kings of Shauraseni line may have occupied Mathura soon after the Yashovarman episode or at least towards the beginning of the seventh century (when the power of the Maukharis of Kannauj had declined ) and made it their capital.

   During the 9th  century and the greater part of the 10 th the city was no more the capital of a kingdom .The region might have been held by the Jadavas of Bayana who had established themselves there under Dharmpala about the beginning of the 9th century .Probably as feudatories of the Gurjara Pratiharas .These Jadava might well have been connected with the older Shurasenas of Kama (Kaman ) and might have succeeded them as rulers of this area.This Dharmpala was the 77th in descent from Krishna according to the list of the chroniclers.He was the first who bears the name of Pala ,which has descended in the family of the Karauli Raja to the present day.The names in the two following lists are derived from the bard’s chronicles ;the frist from the book of Mukji ,the famous bard of the Khichi Chauhan ,and the second from those of the Bayana Bhat.The Jaduvansis list according to Mukji’s list as follows –Dharmapala , Singha Pala ,Jaga Pala , Nara Pala Deva , Sangrama Pala , Kuntha Pala , Bhum Pala , Sucha Pala , Ichcha Pala ,Virama Pala , Jaita  Pala or Jaiyendra Pala.(15 ).
  
About the middle of the 10 th century  the Gurjara Pratihara empire began to disintegrate along with other feudatories the Jadava also exploiting the situation by becoming independent (16 ). About this time another ruling family probably a branch of the Bayana house  or that of the older Shurasenas appears to have established itself at Mahaban and to have ruled over Braj or at least over the whole of what is now the Mathura district (17).

Towards the end of 1018 A.D.Mahmud of Ghazni again invaded India with a hundred thousand horse  raised in his own dominions and twenty thousands foot soldiers of fortune from several central Asian countries (18 )and fell upon Mahaban  near Mathura which was then being ruled by a  Chief  named Kulachandra ,possibly a member of the Jadu dynasty  .But he was , no doubt , the Raja of Braj ,or of the whole Mathura district. Kulachandra , in the words of Mahmud’s chronicler Utbi ,  “was one of the leader of the accursed satans ,who assumed superiority over other rulers ,  and was inflated with pride ,and who employed his whole life in infidelity , and was confident in the strength of his dominions whoever fought with him sustained defeat  and flight ,and he possesses much power , great wealth ,many brave soldiers , large elephants ,and strong forts ,which were secure from attack and capture (  19).From Baran (modern Bulandshahar in U.P. ) ,Mahmud marched towards Mahaban and attacked Mila chandra who owned a large numbers of forts and enjoyed suzerainty over the neighbouring rulers.On hearing of his arrival , Kulchandra with his army  and elephants retreated to a fort in a “deep forest (probably a literal translation of the name Mahaban ) and kept every thing ready for battle.Mahmud discovered the fort and hand -to-hand fight with swords and spears between the two armies .Hindus ,having failed to defend their position jumped into the Jamuna and tries to cross over in search of safety.Finding no way of escape , Kulachandra first killed his wife and then himself.Nearly 5 ,000 of his men losing their lives in action and Mahmud securing a large booty together with 185 war elephants to Mathura (20 ).

  After the downfall of the kingdom of Mathura and Mahaban , the district was perhaps occupied by the Jadavas of Bayana ,probably under underJaitrapala or Jaiyendra Pala ,the 11th raja in the traditional list of the line ‘who is assigned to the first half of the eleventh century and the know date of whose successor  , Vijayapala ,was 1044 A.D.(21) ,The fourth  (or Fifth ) in descent from Vijayapala was Ajayapala  (circa 1135 -1160 A .D) whose inscription dated V .S.1207 (A.D. 1150) has been discovered on a pillar in the great mosque called the Assi-khambha (also known as Nand’s place ) in the fort of Mahaban .The building appears originally to and later converted into a mosque ( 22) .Another inscription  ,that of Ajayapala’s successor Hari pala and dated 1170 A.D., has also been discovered in the same place (23) . Hari pala was succeeded by Sahan pala .An image inscription of the reign of Sahan pala  ,dated A.D.1192 ,has been discovered at Aghapur , in the old Bharatpur State .These records also indicate that this jaduvansi dynasty continued to rule over the Mathura region till perhaps the Muslim conquest a few decades later.

   Though Mathura seems to have lost its political importance in the 12 th century it was still a holy city of no mean significance .Apart from the devout masses , the rulers of the many Rajput principalities which had sprung up in different parts of India were keenly interested in it.Several ruling families of the Daccan in the early mediaeval period claimed descent from the ancient Jadava rulers of Mathura ( 24 ).Coins of the Gahadavals of Kannauj ,of the Tomars of Delhi and of the Chauhans of Ajmer and Delhi ,belonging to this period , have been discovered in Mathura (25) . Jaduvanshi Vinayak pala son of Ichchhapala and brother of Virhma pala (Jaduvanshi ruler of Mathura ) ,was  ancestor of the Banafar clan ,Alha and Udal was also associated with this Mathura city (26). One Ramsen ,a Jadon Rajput from Mahaban ,is said to have founded Bisawar (a village in tahsil Sadabad ) (27) .Besides the Jadavas (now also known as the Jadon Rajput ) several other Rajputs clans now represented in the Mathura district might have settled there about that time (28 ).The Ahirs of the Mathura also claim  descent from Krishna and call themselves Yaduvanshi ;they seem to have settle down here before this time .The Mathura is the place  of the presumed origin of all the Ahirs of Uttar Pradesh ( 29 ) .

About 1196 A .D Shihab-ud-din Ghori and Qutb-ud-din Aibak conquered the territory of the Jadavas of Bayana which probably included the present district of Mathura but it seems to have been lost to them after some time and to have again come under the sway of some Hindu chiefs as Iltutamish  (1211 -36 A .D.) is said to have reconquered this region.Mahaban seems to have been used as a gathering place for his armies during his expeditions against Kalanjar in A.D.1234.

   The Mahaban line of Jaduvanshi ruler 11-13th century was –Vijaya Pala , Tahanpala , Ajaypala , Haripala , Sohanpala and Mahipala .Raja Mahipala of Mahaban has 5 sons ,they spread out in the adjoining places near Mahaban area and established himself.
1_Mahasinghpala–He migrated from Mahaban to Mahva .His descendants were known as Thakurele Jadon clan and found in Khojapur and Banwaripur villages in Etah and Hatharas district.
2-Marigpala –-He migrated from Mahaban to Naugoan Kursanda in Aligarh district.His descendants called Marpur urf Maindgar Jadon clan and found in Somana , Beerpura , Gabhana , Moraihna  and Madhaula in Aligarh district.
3-Motingpala -He settled in Mat village from Mahaban and his descendants are known as Mutwariya clan of Jadon and found in Jakhai and Ban Banwaripur villages in Hatharas dist.
4-Chhatrapala-He settled from Mahaban to Chhata village and his descendants are known as Thakurele Jat clan and found in 12 villages in Chhata tahsil in Mathura district and 54 villages in Khair and Iglas tahsil in Aligarh district.
5- Satpala–He migrated to Kursanda village near Sadabad and do Karav with a Jatni.His descendants are called Haga Jat and found in 24 villages near Sadabad tahsil of Hatharas district.
According on one tradition there is a old fort in Mahaban , which is said to have been built by Rana Katira of Mewar.He took refuge with  jaduvansh Raja Digpal of Mahabanwhen driven out of his own country by the muslims.His son Kant Kunwar ,married Digpal’s daughter and apparently succeeded to his father-in -low dominions.He made a grant of the whole township of Mahaban to his family priests whose descendants best the title of Chaudhari and still own a share in Mahaban .

References—

1-Bajpai ,op .Cut,.pp.105-106 .
2-Archaeological Survey of India ,vol xx ,pp.81-82.
3-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol.I ,p.231;  Watters ,T .:on yuan’s Travels in India (Delhi ,1961),Vol .II ,p.335.
4-Warrers ,op ,cit; p.124.
5-Ibid .,p.302 ;Tripathi ,op .Cut .,p.88
6-Archaeological Survey of India  ,Vol xx ,p.59.
7-Cunningham ,A .: The Ancient Geography of India ,p.314 ; Conybeare ,etc ;op,vot .,p.158.
8-Tripathi ,op.cit.,pp.118-119 and foot note 3.
9-Ibid .,p.124 footnote 1; Sachau ,E C .;Alberuni’s India  ,(Delhi ,1964 ), Vol.II ,p.5.
10-Tripathi ,op .Cut .,p.188.
11-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol .Xx ,p.59.
12-Ephigraphia Carnatic ,Vol .VII ,Nagar No .35 ;Vol .VIII , Tirthahalli N .p.192.Saletore ,B.A.:Mediaeval Jainism ,(Bombay ,1938 ) ,pp.89 -90.
13-Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit .,Vol.III ,p.131 ; Tripathi ,op.cit .,pp.194 ,197 ,199 ,210-211 -he ,however ,fixes the date in approximately 725-752 A.D.
14- Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol .Xx ,p.59.
15-Bajpai ,op.cit .,p.125.
16-Growse ,op.cit .,p.103.
17-Archaeogical Survey of India ,Vol xx ,pp.5-7.
18-Majumdar and Pusalker ,op .Cut.Vol.IV ,p.38.
19-Ibid ,Vol .V ,p.13 ., Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol.xx ,pp.44-46.
20-Ibid ,p.13 ; Haig ,Sir Wolsely (ed) ;The Cambridge History of India  ,Vol .III.(Delhi , 1958 ) ,pp.18-19 ;Elliot ,H.M. and Dowson ,J . :The History of India as told by its own Historiyans Vol.II., (Allahabad ,undated ), pp.41 ,42 ,456 .
21 -Ibid ., P.43.
22-Ibid .; Haig ,op.cit .,p. 19 ; Majumdar and Pusalker ,op cit ., Vol 5 ,p.14.Kulachandra has also been identified with Kokkalladeva ,the Kalachuri , who is supposed to have taken up a position in Mathura in order to intercept the invader .Of . Hodivala ,;S H .:Studies in Indo-Muslims History .Vol .I ,(Bombay ,1935) , pp.146-148.
23 -Majumdar and Pusalker ,op .Cut ., Vol .V .,p.55.
24-Growse ,op.cit., pp.253 , 256 ; Fuher ,op.cit., pp103-104 ;Archeological Survey of India , Vol.XX ,pp. 5-7 ,42-43 ,46.
25-Majumdar and Pusalker ,op .Cut., p.55.
26-Ibid . ,Pp.196 (footnote 1) , 197 (footnote 4).
27-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol .XX.,p.38.
28 -Ibid . ,Vol.VII ,p.24.
29-Conybeare ,etc .,  op.cit.,p.178.
30-A .H Rajput ,( Calcutta .1918).Pp.25 ,74-75 ;77 ;Cooke , W .,The Trives and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Qudh (Calcutta , 1896 ) ,Vol .I.p.404 ;Vol .III ,pp.10-11;Vol .IV.,p.218.
31-Ibid ., Vol.I.pp.50-51;Conbeare ,etc ., op .Cut., p.16.

Author–Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village–Larhota near Sasni ,District-Hatharas,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Professor in Agriculture
S .C.R .S .Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur
Rajasthan.pincode –322001.
National Media Prabhari
Akhil Bhartiya Kshatriya Mahasabha (Wankaner)
 

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