Glorious History of Lunar Race Jadavas /Jaduvansis /Jadons /Surasenas clan Rulers of Bhadanaka -desha / Kingdom / Janpada——–

Glorious History of Lunar Race Jadavas /Jaduvansis /Jadons /Surasenas clan Rulers of Bhadanaka -desha / Kingdom / Janpada——–

The Jadons Kshatriyas ,of course ,claim descent from Krishna,the acknowledged Lord of Mathura after the death of Kansa.Their early history ,therefore ,consists of a number of the popular tales of Krishna derived from the Mahabharta and the Puranas.
Some historian write the word Surasenas ,which were Jadavas ,or Jadovansis,to which race belonged both Krishna and his antagonist Kansa,the king of Mathura.Anciently they are real yadavas or Yaduvansis.The Jadon clan of Rajputs ,who claim descent of Shri Krishna’s great grandson Vajranabh (Vjranabh was son.of Aniruddha ).The jadons ,who have nearly always remained in or near the ancient  country of Sursena or Braj around Mathura (Muttra) ,are said to have at one time held half of Alwar and the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur ,besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra ,the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna ,and portion of Gwalior lying along the Chambal.

Location of Bhadanaka -desha ——

The Bhadanakas  or Bhayanayas , if we use the Apabhramsa  equivalent of the term,  are known to us from various source. Raja ekhara ‘s Kavyamimamsa describes Bhadanakas as speakers of Apabhramsa and groups them as such with the people of Maru and Takkar -desas (1) Their territory adjoined that of the Chauhanas of Shakambhari can be inferred from the Bijolia inscription of Somesvara ‘s reign ,V 1226 (A.D.1169) ,according to which the Lord of the Bhadanaka land was deprived of his bha (lustre) by the Chauhan ruler , Vigraharaja fourth ;(2 ) and the some inference can be drown also from the Kharataragacchapattavali of Jinapala ,which states that Prthviraja third,the ruler of Sapadalaksa ,defeated the Bhadanakas somewhere between V.1234 (A.D.1177) and V. 1239 (A.D.1182) (3 ). Bhadanaka  -desa being described in the Skandapurana as a kingdom with 100,000 villages (4 ) .The Chauhans of Sapadalaksa ( 125, 000 ) no dought ,were a stronger power , the ruler of which aspired to the position of Chakravartins (5 )  and claimed having subjected the whole of Aryavarta (6)  to their power ,had traditionally no greater number of villages in their kingdom.

Further information about the Bhadanakas can be had from other Jaina sources The Sakalatirtha -stotra of Siddhasena Suri puts the Bhadanaka -desa between Kanauj and Harsapura (Haras of Shekhawati ,Rajasthan )and mentioned Kammaga and Sirpha as two of its Jaina sacred sites (7) .From the Vividhatrirthakalpa of Jinaprabha Suri the Siroha was situated only the road connecting Daulatabad or Devagiri with Delhi (8 ) and was somewhere north of Alapura ( 9) which according to the Ain-i -Akbari was a strong hold in the Sarkar of Gwalior.

Evidences in  about Bhadanaka Janapada-

Bhadanaka was a Janapada which include Kaman ,Bharatpur ,and some territory ,south of these on the well -known and well-frequented Delhi -Daulatabad highway of that period and this information supplemented by the evidence of an old Apabhrama manuscript .The Sambhavanathacarita byTejapala ,which ,according to its Prasasti ,(10 ) was written at Siripatha { Sripatha or Bayana} of the Bhayanaya -desha when it was being ruled by Daud Shah .As Tejapala ‘s time can be easily ascertained with the help of his two other works,the Varangacarita and Parsvanathacarita written respectively in V.1507 (1450A.D.) and V.1515(1458A.D.),there is no difficulty in identifying Daud Shah of Sripatha or Bayana in the Bhadanaka -desha with Daud Shah Auhadi ,who was confirmed in 1454 A.D.in the government of Bayana by Mahamud Shah Khilji of Malwa (11 ). His father , Muhammad Khan Auhadi has been forced by Sultan Mubarak Shah of Delhi to evacuate Bayana ,though only temporarily ,for in 1446 A.D.He was once again in possession of the fortress .Obviously then not only Kammaga , the Sanskrit equivalent of which is Kamyaka ,must be  Kaman .

Kaman  (Kammaga /Kamyaka ) ——

Kaman is about 40 miles west from Mathura in the old Bharatpur State .In the middle of the town thete is an old fort with fragments of Hindu sculptures and a mosque called Chaurasi Khamba built out of the materials of Hindu temples wrecked by Muslim iconoclastic fury.From here two inscription of the Surasena family descended from Phakka ,one assigned to the 8th century and the other to the Vikrama year 1012 ( 12)

Sripatha(  ancient Santipur/ Bayana)-—-

It  was an important town of the Bhadanaka -desha, perhaps even it’s capital from a very early period .Included within the Bhadanaka Kingdom was the strong  fort of Tribhuvangiri or  Tahangarh which is barely 23Kms South of Bayana.Bhadanka -desha comprised not only the old Bharatpur State but also Dholpur ,Karauli and parts of Mathura and Alwar Districts ;and that in c.V.1239 (1182 A.D.) when Prthviraj Third of Shakambhari attacked the Bhadanaka kingdom ,it was probably bounded in South -east by the Chambal river  and the Gwalior principality of the Kacchapaghatas .In the north -east lay the Yamuna and the kingdom of the Gahadvals of Varanasi and Kannauj .On the remaining sides was the powerful Chahamana (Chauhan)empire of Sapadalaksa .

Jadon Rulers of Bhadanaka -desa —-

Up to V. 1012 (955 A.D.) Sripatha or Bayana appears to have remained under the Surasenas (13 ).and  tradition appears to state correctly that Jadavas or Jadons of Tribhuvangiri or Tahangarh and Karauli originally ruled at Bayana ,either this very Surasena dynasty  or one of its offshoots came to be designated as Jadavas or Jadon . Surasena was a Jadava( 14).One of his descendants could ,therefore ,call himself either  a Jadava /Jadon or Surasena as he liked ; and a new branch of the family might have preferred to call itself Jadon ,just to distinguish itself from the older branch which had perhaps become either extinct or dispossessed of the Bhadanaka thorne for the reasons of which we have no knowledge (15).

        The ruler of Bhadhanaka -desa against whom Vigraharaja Fourth of Shakambhari had to fight  probably  was either Kunwarpala first who was instructed by the Kharatara Acarya Jinadatta Suri (1112 -1154 A .D.) (16)  or  his success or ,Maharajadhiraj Ajayapala who was known from the Mahaban Prasasti ,found near Mathura ,as ruling in A .D 1150 (V.1207) (17) .He was succes des by Harpala whose rule is vouched for by tradition as well as an inscription of V.1227 (1170 A.D.) (18) .As to Prithviraj Chauhan  III’s . Bhadanaka rival ,he have an image inscription from Aghatapura in Old Bharatpur State .In A D.1196 ,when Tribhuvangiri was captured by Muhammad Ghori ,the ruler on the throne of Bayana was Kunwar pala (19), this Jadon Rajput has to be regarded as Kunwarpala II ,as we know of another Kunwarpala of this line as Jinadatta Suri’s  contemporary (20) .Further history of this line can be had from the Vrattavilasa of the poet Jadunatha who was patronised by Raja Gopal Singh of Karauli , a direct descendant of Kunwarpala II of Tribhuvangiri (21).

Incidentally ,the location of Bhadanka kingdom helps us in solving some other problems.It helps up the mystery of the name Bayana .No phonetic rule can change Sripatha in to Bayana .Nor is the place mentioned as Bayana by any early Non-Muslim writer.Obviously it is Bhadanaka then ,the Apabhram a form of which is Bhayanaya , tha :has turned in to Bayana or Bayana of the Muslim writer.In a language  and a script which makes no fine distinction between  be and bha such a change would be the easiest and the most natural thing to occur .The other point on which the location  of Bhadanaka -desha throws light is the nature  of the Apabhrams from which Varna -Bhasa has originated .As Bhadanaka -desha was almost conterminous with Surasena Janapada ,we may designate the Apabhramisa of the area as Sauraseni Apabhramsa and regard it as the parent of the modern Vraja -bhasa and seek for the evolutionary history of the latter in the Apabhramsa literature which poets of Vraja-bhasa may be said to have assumed charge of the literary field .

References —

   1-Sapabhramsa -prayogah sakala-marubhuvas -Takka -Bhadananakadyah (Kavyamimamsa ,G.O.S.p.51) .
2-Verse 19.
3-p .28 The event was extolled by Jinapati Suri in V .1239 .Prithviraj third ascended the throne in V.1234 .So narally the event has to be placed between these two dates.
4-Kumarika -khanda ,Ch .xxxIX.
5-Prthvirajavijaya ,XI .5
6-Delhi Siwalik pillar Inscription of Vigraharaja.
7-Catalouge of MSS in Patten Bhandara ,I.G.O.S.,p.156 ,verse 22.
8-Singhi Jaina Granthamala ,edition ,p.95.

9-Ibid ,p .96.
10- Jaina -prasasti ,II, Virasewa Mandir ,Delhi edition and it’s English Introduction by the present writer .
11-Cambridge History of India ,III,p.356.
12 -see Bhandarkar’s list of North India Inscriptions ,No .71 ,1849.
13- See, the Bayana Inscription of the year ,PRAS.,WC.,1918-19 ,pp.43.ff,and Ibid ,1919-20,p .57.
14-There are two Surasenas in Yadu dynasty, One was son of Arjun Kartaveerya in Haihaya branch of Yaduvanshi  and other Vasudeva ‘s father and Krishna’s grandfather.
15-A parallel case is that of the Vaghelas of Dhokla who ,though Chaulukyas like Bhimadeva II ,are known to us in history as Vaghelas generally.
16-see the Kharataragacchapattavali ,p.19.
17.-see his Mahaban prasasti of the year ,V.1207 ,EI ,I,pp .289 gf.and II, 276ff.
18-EI, II,p.275.
19-Taj-ul-Ma’dsir ,ED ,II,pp.204-43.
20- see the first sentence of the paragraph ,
21-see the Ojha-nibandha -sangraha , pt ,2 ,pp,1 -9.

Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -larhota ,near Sasni.
District -Hatharas ,UP.
Associate Professor In. Agriculture
S C R S Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur,Rajasthan.pincode-322001.
National Media Prabhari
Akhil Bhartiya Kshatriya Mahasabha.

1 thought on “Glorious History of Lunar Race Jadavas /Jaduvansis /Jadons /Surasenas clan Rulers of Bhadanaka -desha / Kingdom / Janpada——–”

  1. It’s shameful that the erstwhile Bhadana-desh (as spelled in Skanda Purana and by Jain scholars) is being attributed to the Rajputs who didn’t even exist at that time and the real Bhadana rulers are being deprived of their glorious past due to their illiteracy and ignorance.

    The Bhadana Gurjars still populate the same Bhadana-desh even today and are known as fierce fighters. They were defeated by Prithviraj in 1182 AD but they rose against the Turks in 13th century and against the Moghul in 16th century. They still have large tracts of land that they once ruled and many rich powerful leaders of Gurjar community come from Bhadana clan. I would like to know if Rajputs have any Bhadana Gotra and if they have then do they still reside in the same region. History has to be factual and not fanciful as told by the paid bards of the illegitimate rulers who stole the history and kingdoms of ancient Hindu rulers by treachery.

    https://www.academia.edu/38040464/भड_ाना_देश_एवं_वंश

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