Glorious History of Lunar Race Jadavas/Jaduvansis /Jadons / Surasenas dynasty of Kshatriyas Rulers of Kaman(Kama) near Mathura ——
The Jadons Kshatriyas ,of course ,claim descent from Krishna,the acknowledged Lord of Mathura after the death of Kansa.Their early history ,therefore ,consists of a number of the popular tales of Krishna derived from the Mahabharta and the Puranas.
Some historian write the word Surasenas ,which were Jadavas ,or Jadovansis,to which race belonged both Krishna and his antagonist Kansa,the king of Mathura.Anciently they are real yadavas or Yaduvansis.The Jadon clan of Rajputs ,who claim descent of Shri Krishna’s great grandson Vajranabh (Vjranabh was son.of Aniruddha ).The jadons ,who have nearly always remained in or near the ancient country of Sursena or Braj around Mathura (Muttra) ,are said to have at one time held half of Alwar and the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur ,besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra ,the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna ,and portion of Gwalior lying along the Chambal.
Kaman ,one of the twelve holi places of the Vraja Mandala ,lies at a distance of 64 Kns ,from Bharatpur.It is sacred to Hindus , as it form a part of the Braj Area ,where Lord Krishna spent his early life.Its former name is said to have been Brahampore ,but Raja Kamasen ,the maternal grandfather of Krishna changed it to Kaman , after his own name.There are several views about the origin of the name of this town.According to W W Hunter ,it’s present name Kaman is a curtailed from its old name Kadambavana , which is originated from the numerous Kadamba trees there .(1) .Another view traces the present name to a mythical Raja Kamasena (2).According to Bhagwan Lal ,it is derived from Kamavana (3).But ,these views are not correct.In fact ,it seem to have been derived from Kamyakavana .,The place name Kamyaka is mentioned in the inscription of the 9th century A.D.of this place(4).This Kamyakavana is evidently different from Kamyakavana of the Mahabharta ,where the Pandavas sojourned for a short time during their exile ,because the latter was situated on the bank of the Sarasvati (5). The name Kamavati of this place is found in the Prasasti ,and the manuscripts written in the 16th and 17th century A.D.
Kaman was ruled by Surasenas of this place from 6th century up to 8th century A .D..The Kaman inscription (6) ,which belong to the 8th century A.D.,provides us with the genealogy of the Surasenas kings for seven generations.If we place Varsadaman ,the last ruler in the 8th century A.D.,the first member of the dynasty Phakka , as known both from the Kaman and Bayana inscriptions ,can be put in the 6th century A D.In course of time ,the descendants of Pakka established their separate branches at Kaman and Bayana.As known from the Kaman inscription ,there was an old fort in the 8th century A.D.In 1032 A .D., Lakshminivasa was ruling over this place( 7) .These petty rupees seema to have recognized the sovereignty of the Pratihara diler Bhoja ,who made over some Drammas to the saint Pramanarasi of this place ( 8).
According to another view : The Sanskrit inscription of the Surasenas was discovered some times ago by Pandit Bhagwan Lal Indrajit who has given the following genealogy of the Surasena dynasty extending over seven kings :—
1-Phakka ,married Deyika .
2-Kula -abhata (son) ,married Drangeni .
3-Ajita (son) ,married Apsarapriya .
4-Durgabhata (son) ,married Vachchhalika .
5-Durgadaman (son) ,married Vachchhika.
6-Devaraja (son) ,married Yajnika .
About the middle of the sixth century the Maukharis of Kannauj became independent and powerful , their rule extending over a considerable territory corresponding roughly to the present UttarPradesh which might have include the Mathura region (9).In the Old Fort at Kama(in the Bharatpur district) a stone pillar with a Sanskrit inscription of thirty-seven lines on it , which seems to belong to the right century ,mentions a succession of seven rulers of the Surasena family described there as the descendent’s of Shauri (Krishna) ,the last name being that of Vatsadaman.Phakka ,the first in the line is believed to have lived about the close of the sixth century and the family to have represented a branch of the Surasenas (or Jadavas )of Mathura( 10).
The Queen Vachchlika ” ,the queen of the Surasena ruler Durgabhata built a temple of Vishnu in about the eighth century A.D.at this palace (11) ,which ,it seem to have been the object of this inscription to record”.The kings of this line may have occupied Mathura soon after the Yashavarman episode or at least towards the beginning of the 7th century (when the power of the Maukharis had declined ) and made it their capital.
If Vatsadaman place in A.D.750 to 775 ,the head of the family , Phakka ,will date from A.D.600 , reckoning twenty-one years to each given seven generation .As none of the names agree with those of the Jadava princes of Bayana ,as recorded by the bards ,it seems probably that these chiefs of Kaman ,or Kadamba-Van ,were only a branch of the famous Surasenas of Mathura.
In 1032A.D. , Durgadeva ,the Jaina author ,finished the Rishtasamuchchaya in a fine temple of Santinatha at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshminivasa . KumbhAnagara may be identified with Kaman .As regards the king Lakshminivasa , he may be the Sudasena ruler named Lakshmana ,the son of queen Chittralekha mentioned in the Bayana inscription dated 956 A.D.(12).
After the Surasenas ,Kaman was occupied by the Muslims .It was governed by the Muslim Governor of Bayana .From the inscription of 1271 A D.,it is known that the well was originally excavated some fifty years ago ,but was filled up with stone , and earth during the governorship of Muhammad Haji.As the scarcity of water was causing trouble to people ,the well was re-,excavated in 1271 A.D.during the reign of Ghiyasuddin Balaban , and the Government of Nusarat Khan , the chief holder of Bayana.It was also governed by Firuz Tughluq in 1353 A.D.as is evident from as inscription of the third year of his reign (13).
Under the patronage of the Surasena rulers ,both Brahmanism and Jainism prospered at Kaman.There were old temples of Siva ,Vishnu ,and Chamunda (14) .The Jaina temples were also there.The old mosque ,now known as Chosata Khambha ,was built from the material of the Hindu temples.The fingers of Kali , Ganesa , Vishnu ,and Narasimha are found sculputured on the pullers of this Masjid.The most famous of the above temples was the temple of Siva .It was also known by the name of Kamyakesvara .
Kaman had long been under the rule of Jaipur chiefs ,and it was only during the reign of Maharaja Jawahar Singh that Kaman was added to Bharatpur territory .From many important Hindu temples at Kaman ,the two of them ,the idols of Gokal Chandraman and Madan Mohanji were taken away by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh to his newly built city of Jaipur.
There is also a tank at Kaman ,named Bimal Kund ,surrounded on all sides by temples.A Chhatri , built in the memory of Surasena Raja Kamasena stands on the bank’s of the tank.Kaman has now lost its ancient splendour and stands on a raised ground surrounding on the south by Jheels (lakes) and contains ruins of many old pukka buildings.
1-ASG ,XX ,p .54.
2-Imperial Gazetteer of Rajputana ,pp.338-39.
3-IA ,X ,p.34.
4-EI ,XXIV ,p.332.
5-Mbh . Vanaparva Adhyaya ,1-3.
6-A S G ,X X ,p.59.
7-S J S ,X X I.
8-EI ,X X I V ,p.332.
9-Tripathi ,R.S. : History of Kannauj ,(Delhi ,1959) ,p.55; Majumdar and Pusalker , op.cit.,p.69;Bajpai ,op.cit.,pp.118-119.
10-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol.X X, pp.54-60.
11-AS G ,XX, p.59.
12-IA ,XI V ,p.8.
13-ASG ,XX ,pp.57.
14-EI ,X X I V ,p.331.
Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni ,
National Media Prabhari
Akhil Bhartiya Kshatriya Mahasabha (Wankaner)