Glorious History of Tahangarh Fort of Lunar race Jadavas/ Jaduvansis /Jadons clan Kshatriyas of Bayana /Timangarh ———

Glorious History of Tahangarh Fort of Lunar race  Jadavas/ Jaduvansis /Jadons clan  Kshatriyas of Bayana /Timangarh —-—–

The Jadavas /Jaduvansis are descent from Krishna ,the acknowledged lord of Mathura after the death of Kansa.Their early history, therefore,consists of a number of the popular tales of Krishna derived from Mahabharata and the Puranas . A branch of ancient real Yadavas/yaduvansis at the present day are the Jadu or Jadons of the state of Karauli ,to the west of the Chambal ,and the Jadons of Sabalgarh ,or Jadonvati ,in the Gwalior territory to the east of that river. When Bayana. And Tahangarh captured by Muhammadans (Muhammad Ghori and others Turks)Many of  jadons families dispersed and settled wherever they could find home.From Bayana  and Tahangarh a very large portion of population of Jadons settled  at Sohna and  Alwar on the west to Chambal on the east and diferente  part of present UP ,M P and other States.

Location of Tahangarh Fort—-

The great fort of Tahangarh has hitherto escaped notice.It is now quite deserted ,and the people are afraid to enter it, as it is quite overgrown with jungle and full of wild beasts.Thahangarh is situated in the Aravalli hills of Karauli district in Rajasthan .It is 23 Kms to the south ofBayana and the distance to the east Hindaun , and to the north of Karauli .
In the olden times ,it was one of the famous forts of Northern India.

The name Tahangarh has been spelt differently by the chronicles .In early olden times it was also known as Tribhuvanagiri ( 1 ) .In later time about 13th century chronicles spelt it differently.Minhas-i-Siraj ,in his Tahakat-i-Nasiri mentioned  name of Tahangarh fort by the name Thangir ( 2) .Hasan Nizami spelt  it as Thangarh in his Taj-ul-Maasir ( 3 ).Alexander Cunningham says that the name of this fort appeared as Tewangarh in the maps,used by him ( 4 ).Further  ,in the Gazetteer of district Sawaimadhopur ,the name of this fort is given as Tamangarh (5 ) which is obviously an attempt to follow the version in the local dialect .

The foundation of Tahangarh—In early days it was one of the famous forts of Northern India .The foundation of Tahangarh fort is ascribed to the Jadava /Jadon king Tahanpala , in A.D .1058 , son of Raja Vijayapala (6 ) whose time is known from  a still existing  inscription in the Bahari-Bhitari Mahalla Masjid of Bayana  , in which his name occurs , with the date of  Samvat 1100 , or 1043 A .D ( 7 ) .The date of his son Tahanpala may , therefore  ,be placed in the latter half of the same century , or from A.D .1075 to 1100 . The name Tahun pala by the bards , and it appears as Tewangarh in the maps .Like his father  ,he also built the fort after his own name .The territory round it ,in course of time  ,became famous after the name of the fort.It was also famous by the name of Tribhuvangiri .When Mohammedans occupied it ,it assumed the name of Islamabad (8  ).
From the time of recorded history , Tahangarh and the area that it commanded ,was a part of Surasena Janapad .This Janapada took it’s name from Surasena ,the grandfather of Lord Krishna  and covered the present area of Mathura ,part of Agra ,Gurgaon , Bharatpur ,Dholpur and Karauli .Lord Krishna as be know from the tradition  ,was a Jaduvanshi hence the dynasty of Surasena who ruled from Bayana were also called the Jadavas .To this the ruling house of Tahangarh (latter their capital shifted to Karauli ) ,the Jadons trace their ancestery .It appears that some change on the throne of Bayana within the ruling family . Jadus  onward came to be substituted for Surasena in early eleventh century .From Jadus to Jadavas and then to Jadons or Jadauns was an early  etymological transformation (  9 ).
Tahanpala was a powerful king of this Jadava dynasty  of Mathura/Bayana .He extended his kingdom by bringing the major part of Dang , Alwar , Bharatpur , Dholpur , Gurgaon , Mathura ,Agra  and Gwalior ( 10  ).He got the title of Paramabhattaaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameswara (11 ).

During the reign of the Jadavas , Jainism remained specially associated with Tahangarh . Manikyasuri  ,in a  prasasti of the Parsvanathacharita , wrote that his ancestor Pradyumnasuri defeated his opponents in the courts of the ruler of Sapadalaksha , and  Tribhuvangiri , and was honoured by them (12 ). Kardamabhupati , the ruler of this place is said to have been initiated to monkhood by Abhayadevasuri , a disciple of Pradyumnasuri  , and was named Ghanesvarasuri  (13 ). Whether Kardama was his name or title , is not known .From a Prasasti ( 14 ) of the Chunadirasa  , it is  known that Bhattaraka Vinayachanda of the Mathura Samgha wrote it in the Ajayanarendravihara  at Tribhuvangadha during the reign of Ajayapala .This town was in a prosperous  condition , because the poet compares this place to heaven in prosperity . Ajayapala may be identified with the Jadava ruler of this name who was a nephew of Kunwarpala ruling in the 12th century A. D.The other known works  of Bhattaraka Vinayachandra are Nirjharapanchamirasa  ,and Kalyanakarasa .In 1157 A.D. , Jinadattasuri visited Tribhuvanagiri  , and addressed Kunwarpala , the ruler of this place .He performed an installation ceremony of the golden Kalasa , and hoisted a flag of the temple of Santinatha with great pomp and show (15 ). Jinapalagani , and Dharmasilagani , disciples of Jinapatisuri , studied with Yasobhadracharya at this place .After receiving orders from their teacher , they started on a pilgrimage with the Samgha of Tribhuvanagiri in 1188 A.D.( 16 )., defeated some scholar in discussion at this place ( 17 )  .From the Upakesagachhapattavali , it is known that there was an old temple of this Gachchha ( 18 ) .Along with Jainism , Saivism was also followed by the people .It was a centre of the Pasupati sect of the Saivas in the 12 th century A.D.( 19 ).

   The capture of Tahangarh by Muslims is recorded by two contemporary writers.In the Taj-ul-Masir ,Hasan Nizami (20 ) says , “In the year 1196 A.D.,Muhammad Ghori  , and his lieutenant Kutb-ud-din Aibak marched towards Thangar , and that centre of idolatry and perdition became the abode of glory and splendour .Kunwarpala , the Rai of Tahangarh ,who had prided himself on the numbers of his army and the strength of his castle ,when he saw the power of army opposed to him , fear invaded his breast , and he begged for safety for his life a salve , kissed the face of the carth with the very roots of his teeth.Upon which he was pardoned and admitted into favour , and , though with the loss of his kingdom , was content that his life was left to him .The Musalmans entered into conditions for paying revenue.The country was purified from the defilement of infidelity , and no opportunity remained for opposition and rebellion.The government of Tahangarh was conferred on Baha-ud-din Tughril ,who was acquainted with matters of administration and the customs of setting soldiers in army , and who received advice and instructions from his Majesty how to comport himself in his new appointment ( 21 ).
Similarly ,Minhaj-i-Siraj ,in his Tabaqat-i-Nasiri ( 22) tells us that when Sultan Ghazni Muizaddin conquered the fort of Thankar in the country of Bayana after finishing with the Rai ,he consigned it to Baha-ud-din Tughril charge and he so improved the conditions of the country ,that merchants and men of credit came  from different parts of Hindustan and Khurasan .He gave all of them houses and goods ,  and also made them masters of landed property  ,so that they settled there .As he  ,and his army did not like to reside in the fort of Thankar , he founded the city of Sultan lot in the territory of Bayana , and made it the place of  his residence.

During the Muslim rule , the population of the Muslims  increased ,and several Hindus  and Jains migrated to different places for safety , and security from Tahangarh .The Muslims destroyed Hindu temples and caused persecutions of the Hindus.Formely , it was  a prosperous town , but incessant invasions and plunders of the Muslims devastated this place.From the Prasasti of the Jinadattachariu in 1218 A.D. ,it is known that Lakshmana  fled to Vilasapura from Tribhuvanagiri in panic on account of the Muslim persecution. A Sravaka named Sridhara gave him shelter  ,and by his persuasion , he composed the Jinadattachariu in 1218 A.D ( 2 3) .

   Tribhuvanagiri is also mentioned in the Hammiramahakavya  (24 )of Nayachandrasuri .When Hammir ascended the throne in V .S.1339 ,he started on a Digvijaya ,or conquest of all the quarters.He reached home passing  through all towns such as Chitor ,Abu , Vardhamanpura , Changa , Pushkara , Khendela ,    Champa , and Karkarala ,at the least of which places  ,he received the homage of the Ruler of Tribhuvanagiri .Even in latter times , the importance of this place continued .We also come across the records of the visit by Sikandar Lodi in 1516 A.D. ,to this place ( 25 ).At the time of Babar’s invasion ,Alam Khan was the Governor of this place.
The importance of Tahangarh fort may be judged from the fact that in the medieval times Tahangarh was  regarded as a strong fort of Northern India ( 26 ).The fort stands on a hill difficult of approach ,but it and all the old buildings are now in  ruins.
The fort Tahangarh is no less stronger than the Ranathambhaur fort.There is a thick wall of 30 feet height  surrounding the fort which is about 20 to 30 feet wide at the base . The fort is spread in about 8 Kms rounded area , encloses  a garden  ,temples including Shiva , Ganesh And a large Lake named “Sagar ” , large bazaar with sixty shops  having Jagan Pol and Suraj Pol two main inference gates , Nanad-Bhaujai well , other wells for the inhabitants and places for the use of the ruler.It is for this reason that in the earlier days it was also known by the name of Trimuri Nagar.A gate called the Jagan Pol is the most  complete portion of the remains.Near it is a mosque and dargah  ,but they are now the haunts of panthers and of a solitary.Hindu hermit of the Sat Nath order .A large  Sagar tank covered with singharas and abounding in fish and wild fowl lies below the fort.A stream from this piece of water irrigates the village of Bhojpura and joins the Jambura Nala mentioned above.On Jeth Sudi 10th (June) a Fakir takes place on the banks of the tank ,and thousands of people assemble there usually.
Tarhati ,better known in history as Tamangarh fort ,is a small  village in Karauli .It remained a famous seat of Jainism and a centre of the Pashupati section of the Saivas in the 12 th century .It stands on a height of 1309 feet above sea level and has a difficult approach.The fort is now in  ruins except for a solitary gate (27).
After the fall of Tahangarh ,the Raja retired into Jungles and the whole of the Jadon  territory fell into the hands of the Invaders for a period about 130 years . The Jaduvanshi dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,being deprived of their strongholds and territories , migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely thata scion of this family established himself at Karkrala  or Karkaralagiri .Later on ,his descendants came to be known as the Jadavas of Karauli .The two succeeding rulers ,could not regain their patrimony .From 1196 to 1327 A D., the chronology of this line is uncertain .It seems that this period was marked by disorder and decline of this Jadu dynasty (2 8).In A.D.1327 ,Raja Arjun pala ,son of Gokuladeva ,was one of the greatest king of this dynasty .By defeating Miyan Makkhan of Manddryal ,who was unpopular in the region .Raja Arjun pal again got a foot-hold in his home territory .He further established his authority over his kingdom by suppressing the Minas and the Panwar Rajputs.
Arjunpala’s successors were more or less  insignificant .They became involved in family feuds and this made them too weak to face the onslaught of their enemies.During the reign of Prthvipala , the Afghans captured Tahangarh (Thankar) in the first quarter of the 15th century.One of raja Arjunpala’s successors , Chandrapala or Chandrasen (15th in the line) was defeated by Mahmud Khalji of Malwa.The raja retired to his capital after handing over Karauli to Khalji’s son Fidvi Khan .After being ousted , Chandrapala led the retired life of a devotee at Untagir fort .It seems that he and his successors retained their authority over a narrow strip of land around the place of their refuge ,till one of his successor Gopal Das  ,regained a portion of his territory during Akbar’s time.He was a manasabadar in the Mughal empire and subdued the refractory tribes of his principality and erected places at Masalpur and Zhiri and a fort at Bahadhrpur.(29).He was succeeded by Dwarikadas , Mukand Das , Jagmal , Chhatraman , Dharmpala ll, Ratanpal and Kunwar pal II.

The northern tower of the gateway of the fortress of Tahangarh has an inspection of three lines in very small writing giving the names of Ibrahim Lodi , Sikandar Lodi and Behlol Lodi with the date of A.H.925 /1519 A .D and calling this a “place of rest “.This suggests that Tahangarh was an important place during the Lodi Sultanate of Delhi. .The place appears to have slipped in the hands of Shershah as would be evident from An inscription  ,referring to Salim or Islam Shah ,son of Sherashah (953 A.H./1547A.D ) inside the fortress (30 ) .


1-Archaeological Survey of India Report ,Alexander Cunningham ,p.4 4.,Early Chauhan Dynasties ,Dasharath Sharma ,Delhi ,1959 ,p 39.Rajasthan Through the Ages ,ed Dasharath Sharma , Raj.State .Archives ,Bikaner ,1966 ,Vol.I.pp.697-698.
2-Tabaqat -i-Nasiri ,Ninjas -us-Siraj ,tr by H G Raverty ,reprint Orient Longman  ,New Delhi ,1970 ,Vol.I.p.545.
3-Taj-ul -massir , Hasan Nizami , Elliot.History of India as told by its own historians .Ed .Dowson , reprit , Allahabad , 1964 ,Vol.II.p.226.
4-Archaeological Survey of India Report.Vol.XX ,pp.88-92.
5-Gazetter of India Rajasthan , Sawaimadhopur ,Jaipur 1981 ,p.35.
6-O N S ,III , Vrittavilasa .
7-ARRMA ,1913 -14 ,pp.1-2.see also IA ,XIV ,p.10.Jagdish Singh Gahlot ,Rajputana ka Itihas
8-AS C ,XX ,p.89.
9-Alexander Cunningham ,p 2 cf .Jagdish Singh Gahlot ,pp.593-597 ,12.For tradition regarding the Jadon rulers of Karauli , see Annals and Antiquities of Raj,by James Tod , reprint N.Delhi 1978 p.73, Raj .Through.Ages ,pp.22-23 ., Conningham , Alexander ,p.28 ,Karauli Gazetteer ,ed Capt.Powlett ,p 2.
10-Jagdish Singh Gahlot ,History of Rajputana ,601 -602 .
11-Archeological Survey of India ,Vol.20 ,p.39. Calcutta ,Govt.Press ,1885,Vol.20 ,p.39.
12-PR ,III ,PP.158-162.
13-Ibid , Kardamabhupti is said to be a contemporary of the Malva king Manju, who died in897A.D.But , this view is doubtful ,because Tahangarh itself was not founded at that time.
14-see Appendix No, 48.
15-KB ,pp.19-20.
16-Ibid ,p.34 .
17-PCa ,PP.171-182.
18-Bharatiyavidya , II ,p.90.
19-ASC ,XX ,p.90 .
20-EHID ,II ,pp.266 -267.
21-Elliot’s Muhammadan Historians Vol .II ,pp .226-227 .
22 -TN , p .545 .
23-AK ,V III ,p.400. Paramanand Shastri has identified Vilaspura with Wiliarampur in Etah District of UP .Actually it is Krishnavilasa located near Kota.
24-H M ,IX ,p .99.
25-A S C ,XX ,p.90 .
26-Archaeolohical Survey of India  ,Alexander Cunningham ,p.44. , Early Chauhan Dynasties ,Dasharath Sharma , Delhi ,1959 , p.39. ,Rajasthan Through the Ages ,ed Dasharath Sharma ,1966 ,Vol .I. pp.697-698 .
27;Census of India  1961 ,Rajasthan  ,District census Handbook , Sawaimadhopur ,district ,p.xi.
28-Chronology of India ,170.
29-Kharitas of Karauli Rajya ,Rajasthan State Archives ,Bikaner .
30-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol .20 ,pp.90-91.

Author–Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni ,Distt.Hatharas ,UttarPradesh.
Associate Professor in Agriculture
S.C.R.S.Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan ,pincode 322001.
National Media Prabhari
Akhil Bhartiya Kshatriya Mahasabha (Wankaner).

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