An important effect of the Musalman invasion was the movement it induced among the Rajputs od western India.Displaced from their original homes they wandered eastwards in small bodies and different times ,and many such colonies were established in the Doab .The Dors were almost exterminated by the invading armies and the Badgujars were much weakened , though they appear at all times to have successfully maintained a conciliatory policy towards their Musalman overlords .Elsewhere the fighting races seem to have vanished , and their places were taken by the Chauhans , who occupied the north and west , being led thither by the descendants of Prithvi Raj Chauhan , the Jadons in the south and scattered colonies of the Gahlots , Pundirs ,Porach and many other clans . The presence of Musalman Garrison’s at Koil ,Jalali and elsewhere prevented the rise of the Rajputs to any eminence ; but in the rural tracts they seem to have remained undisturbed so long as they paid their tribute , and in the course of time they acquired considerable power within the limits of their petty sphere of influence. The distribution of rajput is very uneven ,they are found in large numbers in Aligarh ,Sikandra Rao and Hathras tahsils ,while elsewhere the figure is small ,except in Khair ,where they are mainly confined to the eastern tracts .they are chief proprietary caste in the district ,and their occupations are almost wholly agricultural ,since as cultivators they hold a very large area ,which they till with fair success.The rajput community comprises representatives of many clans through only a few are of much importance in this district . Kshatriya’s Clans in Aligarh and Hathras districts— In 1833 ,the following rajput zamindar clans held possession in Aligarh district ; Jadon ,Chauhan ,Porach ,Pundir ,Gahlot ,Bhal , Jaiswar , Solanki ,Gaur ,Janghara ,Bangar ,Badgujar ,Baes,Kachhavaha ,Rathor ,Dor ,Gaurahar ,Chhonkar ,Tomar and Kirar. Land holding account in Rajput clans in Aligarh district —– The account of some of the important clans in respect of their holdings is given below .The leading place is taken by the Rajput of various clans , who in 1908 held 293,905 acres or 24.32 percent , of the total area .The amount is small in comparasion with the former figure ,for in 1840 ,Rajputs owned 466,921 acres and in 1870 their possession were 346,648 acres in extent .The actual purchage too of the village communities have been even greater than would appear , since large purchases have been made by great landowners such as the Raja of Awa-Misa (Awagarh) , in many cases at the expense of Rajputs , like Pundirs of Bijaigarh and the Porach family of Hasayan .The possession of the caste are most extensive in the Sikandra Rao and Aligarh tahsils ,but they also hold large areas in other parts except Iglas . The principal clans are Jadons with 130 ,089 acres ; the Chauhans with 55,156 acres principally in Khair and Aligarh ,though once their estates were much larger ; Pundirs with 40,247 acres ,mainly in Sikandra Rao ; Bargujar with 25,721 acres ,for the most part in Aligarh and Atrauli .Several other clans are represented ,such as the Kirars with 8 ,530 acres in Hathras ; Jangharas with 6,168 acres in Koil ,Gorai and Hathras paraganas ;the Dors ,the descendants of the ancient lords of the district , with 4,878 acres in Aligarh tahsil ; the Gahlots of Sikandra Rao and Hatharas with 5 ,301 acres ; Bhale Sultan of the Hathras , Chandaus and Koil paragna with 5,301 acres and the Porach jadon rajputs of Hathras and Sikandra Rao , who retain only 2,600acres out of their once important estates .Altogether Rajputs still possess 544 villages , with an area of 346,648 acres in Aligarh district , in full proprietary right. The Chauhans are scattered all over the district ,but are prevailing clan in Khair ,Chandaus and Morthal .They trace their descent from the ancient rulers of Delhi ,the ancestor of Khair Chauhans being Raja Sangat whose the great –grandfather was Chahara Deva ,brother of Prithvi Raj Chauhan ,one of whome numerous progeny settled in Khair .The Chauhan clan will be noticed at length under the Mainpuri district. The A’in notes the presence of the chauhan zamindars in the mahals of Koil ,Atrauli ,Chandaus ,Tappal ,Marahra ,and Bilram .In the MB’s tradition history ,the Chauhans are found to dominate in the parganah of Khair ,Chandaus ,and Morthaland are noticeable in the paraganah of Tappal ,Atrauli and in the Western part of Sikandrarao .In Khair ,they conceded at least half to Jadons and Brahmans .Part of the old Somana taluka is held by Sultan Singh and Phul Singh ,who reside at Somana and are in possession of six villages in the Khair and Chandaus Pargnaha ,paying a revenue Rs-2991.Three Mahalsin tne same Parganas are owned by Karan Singh of Sujanpur, and one village in Chandaus is the property of Mathura Das Singh of Asadpur in the Rahota District. Chauhans of Bamauti Village in Khair Tahsil were great freedom fighter in1857mutiny—– Formerly there was a powerful family of Chauhans living at Bamauti near Khair, who at one time held partpartically the whole of Pargana. In the days of Marathas , Rao Pirthi Singh was dispossessed by General Perron , and his son, Rao Lachhman Singh , obtained from the british Government certain allowances which terminated with his death . He was succeeded in a portion of the ancestral property by Hira Singh , but the latters son , Rao Bhopal Singh Chauhan , brought about the ruin of the house by attempting to reign his lost possession during the Mutiny .He deposed the tahsildar of Khair and proclaimed a Rajput Government .Mr.Warson and Dr .S. Clark’s , with the volunteers ,made a night march to Khair ,about 14 miles West of Aligarh , and whilst the town was surrounded by videttes to prevent the rebel Chief’s escake , Mr .Watson , with a few volunteer , gallunty rode straight through the town , to the tahsil , Rao Bhupal Singh was hanged on the spet , and the party returned to Aligarh.Mr.Pateson Sunders then took commond of the volunteers .About the middle of the month the Chauhans , joined by the Jats ,re-occupied Khair and plundered and destroyed nearly all the government buildings , as well as the houses of the Baniyas and Mahajans .Until about the middle of June the volunteer force remained intect. The Pargana of Morthals too was held by Chauhans in early days, but most of them had lost their estates before the first regular settlement.In Morthal they retained there traditional area. The villages of Morthal , Qasimpur , Jawan , Tejpur Mohanpurah Raipur and Loharah of Pargana Morthal is said to have been captured by the Chauhans during the Sultanate period , after driving away the Muslims. In Atrauli their area seems to have doubled ,and in Sikandrarao too it has expanded .In pargana Koil ,where their earlier presence is reported from onlya few villages ,they have a solid block in northern and south-western part . The south-western part of Sikandra Rao has ,according to tradition ,been held by the Chauhans since the 12th century A.D.Manik Rai Chauhan migrated from Rajputana and captured Sikandra Rao .At that time ,the Chandelas were ruling over this region . His son , Bilram Singh founded Bilram in Etah district.He had 11 sons from . queens .His sons and descendants are allegedly the founders of various places in this region ;-Jarauli , Kachaura ,Katai , Porah ,Dahgawan .Agsauli ,Bargawan ,Mandi , Jansoi and Sindhauli are some of the important place of their earliest settlement . The Chauhan zamindars have not been recorded in the A’in against the mahals of Sikandra rao and Akrabad ,but they are entered against the mahals of Bilram and Marahra ,two adjoining paragnas of the district Etah .It seems ,therefore ,that the South-Western part of Sikandrarao was formerly included in the mahals of Marahra and its North –East corner was included in the mahals of Bilram .Till 1824 ,Bilram ,and till1838 ,Marahra had belonged to the Aligarh district . The position of pargana Tappal is somewhat different .The A’in records only Chauhan zamindars in this mahal .But the tradition account in the MB records Jat zamindars also in the pargana .probably ,the present limits of pargana Tappal do not fully conform with the limits of the Mughal mahal of Tappal.The western part of the parganas ,Khair and Chandaus were probably also included in mahal Tappal .This part was predominantly Chauhans in 1600A.D. The Chauhans ,reputedly ,captured 8 places from Mewatis ,after killing them ,in the pargana of Chandaus ,some 900 years before 1866A,D.However ,during the Balban’s time ,the trans-Yamuna area was infested with Meos rebles and he marched personally to crush them .From Jewar and Khurja also ,the Meos are reported to have been forcibly evicted by the Badgujars during the same period .About pargana Chandaus ,,Hutchinson says that it was originally a Chaurasi of the Chauhans . In 1833 ,there were 10 villages in tahsil Khair held by the Muslim Chauhan zamindars .In the Tappal area ,the Chauhan are said to have been converted to Islam during Aurangzeb’s reign .Shiv Singh and Bijai Singh were the two Chauhan brothers who embraced Islam .The Muslim Chauhan of Tappal trace their descent to them . References — 1-Aligarh :A gazetted of the district gazetteers of United Provinces of Agra &Qudh ,Bill .4 , by H.R.Nevill , 1909. 2-Aligarh District :A Historical Survey ,Aligarh ,Chap.VII , p.173-189.by J.M.Siddiqi . 3-Misl Bandobast , Vazibul-Arza , Mauza Tochhi , Pargana Aligarh ,1281 Hi .Fasal ,year 1873A.D. 4-The Jat rulers of Upper Doab by Jagbir Singh. 5-Statistical ,descriptive and historical account of the northwestern Provinces of India ,Meerut division pt.I ,1874. Allahabad ,Bill.II. 6-J.Thorton , Report upon .The settlement of pergunnah Moordhany .Zillah Allyaarh ,Vide Allygurh ,Statics.pp.236 ,noted in Aligarh district. 7-Baber ‘s Memoirs. 8-Elliot History II .Appendix. 9-Indian Journal of Archaeology , Voll 2 ,No .4 ,2017 . Archaeological Gazetteer of Aligarh and Hathras districts with special reference to OCP and other Proti-Historic cultures of Indo-Gangetic plains by Editor Chief Vijay Kumar. 10-Smith W.H.settlement Report . 345 Aligarh district .Allahabad. 11-Raja Lachhaman Singh Bulandshahr Memo . 12-District . Census Handbook UP 6-Aligarh. 13-Board’s Records ,31st August , 1822,No 7. 14-Uttar Pradesh district Gazetteers .Mathura , Govt of UP .1968 . 15-Crooke William C.A.1886 .The Tribes and Castes of North-Western India.Voll.I to V. 16-The Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North -West Frontier section IV.by H.A.Rose. 17-Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-West .Vol 1. 18-Sherring M.A.Hindu Tribes and Castes .Vol.I to III. Investing .Punjab Castes. 19-S.H.M.Elliot .Supplemental Glossary of Terms used in N.W.P
Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Sasni District -Hatharas ,UP.
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College ,
Sawaimadhopur , Rajasthan ,322001.