Historical Research on Zamindar Clans of Kshatriyas in Aligarh district including Hatharas in the 16 to 19th century with reference to Badgujars —
An important effect of the Musalman invasion was the movement it induced among the Rajputs od western India.Displaced from their original homes they wandered eastwards in small bodies and different times ,and many such colonies were established in the Doab .The Dors were almost exterminated by the invading armies and the Badgujars were much weakened , though they appear at all times to have successfully maintained a conciliatory policy towards their Musalman overlords .Elsewhere the fighting races seem to have vanished , and their places were taken by the Chauhans , who occupied the north and west , being led thither by the descendants of Prithvi Raj Chauhan , the Jadons in the south and scattered colonies of the Gahlots , Pundirs ,Porach and many other clans .
The presence of Musalman Garrison’s at Koil ,Jalali and elsewhere prevented the rise of the Rajputs to any eminence ; but in the rural tracts they seem to have remained undisturbed so long as they paid their tribute , and in the course of time they acquired considerable power within the limits of their petty sphere of influence.
The distribution of rajput is very uneven ,they are found in large numbers in Aligarh ,Sikandra Rao and Hathras tahsils ,while elsewhere the figure is small ,except in Khair ,where they are mainly confined to the eastern tracts .they are chief proprietary caste in the district ,and their occupations are almost wholly agricultural ,since as cultivators they hold a very large area ,which they till with fair success.The rajput community comprises representatives of many clans through only a few are of much importance in this district .
Kshatriya’s Clans in Aligarh and Hathras districts—
In 1833 ,the following rajput zamindar clans held possession in Aligarh district ; Jadon ,Chauhan ,Porach ,Pundir ,Gahlot ,Bhal , Jaiswar , Solanki ,Gaur ,Janghara ,Bangar ,Badgujar ,Baes,Kachhavaha ,Rathor ,Dor ,Gaurahar ,Chhonkar ,Tomar and Kirar.
Clan-wise Distribution of Kshatriyas in Aligarh and Hathras District —
The Chauhans —
The Chauhans are scattered all over the district , but are strongest in Khair ,Sikandra Rao and Aligarh , and in former days held almost the whole of the Khair ,Chandaus and Morthal par ganas.They trace their descent from the ancient rulers of Delhi , the ancestor of the Khair Chauhans being Raja Sangat , the great -grand son of Chahara Deva , the brother of Prithviraj ,one of whose numerous progeny settled in Khair.Some Chauhans especially in Sikandra Rao tahsil are descendants of Etah and Mainpuri Chauhan.Bhupal Singh of Khair was a great freedom fighter of 1857 of this clan.
The Jadons —
Jadons are descendants of Lord Shri Krishna of pure ancient Yadava race and through him from Yadu of Lunar race .Their home native place is Bayana in Bharatpur district after migration from Mathura in 1017 A.D.Those -living in this district appear to have come from Jalesar pargana of Etah district and Mahaban pargana of Mathura district.Jadons found in the district everywhere , but are far stronger in tahsil Koil and in paragnas Akrabad ,Sikandra Rao ,Khair .There are also found in Gorai ,Iglas ,Hatharas ,Atrauli pargnas also in small numbers.
Some of them (jadons ) are described as Chhonkars , Jaiswars and Porach of Hatharas tahsil are said to represent a branch of the Jadon clan.
Chhonkars are found in small numbers in Atrauli tahsil.Porach are found in large numbers in Hathras and Sikandra Rao tahsils .
The Pundirs are found chiefly in the Sikandra Rao and Koil tahsils .And in the former they hold large estates , their chief families being those of Sahaoli ,Akrabad ,Nai and Bijaigarh.They come in this district from Hardware in Saharanpur district under the leadership of Raja Damar Singh , who established himself first at Gambhira (Bijaigarh ) in the Akrabad paragana .Their fort was Bijaigarh , which took it’s name from Bijai Singh brother of raja Damar Singh.Thakur Mahtab Singh and Mangal Singh were the great freedom fighters of Akrabad of this clan in 1857 mutiny .
The Badgujars —
They are strongest in Atrauli ,Sikandra Rao and Koil , in the last owning practically the whole of the Barauli pargana .
The Gahlots prince of Chitr married with the sister of Prithviraj Chauhan , and it is to this connection is due the presence of Gahlots in the Upper Duab .
They are chiefly found in Hathras and Atrauli tahsils .They say that they came to assist the Chauhan prince of Delhi in his numerous wars , and reward he gave them over the lands of the Meos and the Dors .Chand Bardai mentions Gobind Rao ,Gahlot , as one of Prithiraj’s auxiliaries .The Bulandshahr Gahlot say that they settled near Dasna under Raja Khuman at an early period .
The Tomar and Jangharas —
Tomars in Hathras ,Iglas and elsewhere ,the total including the Jangharas ,who in early days held most of the Iglas tahsil and claim descent from the Tomars of Delhi.
The Panwars —
They are found in small numbers in Hathras and Sikandra Rao tahsils .
The Bhale Sultan —
The Bhale Sultan of Sasni in Hathara are another ancient clan ,connected with the Khurja family in Bulandshahr , but their present possessions are very small.
The other clans include the Dors in Koil , Solankis of the Hathras pargana , Kachhwahas of Koil ,Rathods and Gaurahars of Atrauli are also found in small numbers and having probably crossed the Ganges from Badaun district .
The Badgujars are the descendants of Lava ,the elder son of Rama ,and were expelled from their ancient settlement in Rajawar or Rajor in Macheri of the Alwar state .In other words we can say that their old capital was Rajor ,the ruins of which are still to be seen in the south of Alwar , and they held much of Alwar and the neighbouring parts of Jaipur till dispossed by the Kachhwahas .Their head –quarter are now at Anupshahar on the Ganga ,but there is still a colony of them in Gurgon on the Alwar border .
The Barauli family of Badgujar in Aligarh district trace their origion to Raja Rajdeo of the solar race ,who ruled at Macheri .The grand son of Rajdeo was married a sister of Prithiraj ,and their son Pratap Singh joined the force of his uncle in the great Chauhan war ,The Aligarh legend makes Pratap Singh the leader of an army against Kumaun hills in the 12th century A,D , not Mahoba .
According to the MB ,the villages of Gaonri ,Tamkoli ,Pratappur ,Potha and Malikpurah of pargana Barauli were granted to Rao Pratap Singh by Prithiraj Chauhan of Delhi as a reward for his successful campaign in Kumaun hills .His camp was pitched amongst a cluster of Meo village ,and was plundered by the people of the neighbourhood .In revenge for this , he attacked the Meos and defeated them , and as reward received 175 villages as dowry with the daughter of the Dor rajput Chieftain of Koil.On his return from Kumaun , the Raja settled in Barauli and made Barauli his capital and increased his possessions to the numbers of 1656 villages .
The Barauli Badgujars call themselves the elder branch ,and say that the title of “Rao” now borne by them was conferred on their ancestors by Prithiraj himself , as an honorific appellation to be borne by the elder branch alone .They claim descent from Ranu ,the eldest son of Pratap Singh , and say that the Lalkhani Badgujars are descended from Jatu .
The Badgujar appear to have held the entire paragana of Barauli and two blocks in the northern part of the pargana Atrauli in 16th century .
Event at the last settlement five villages were mortgaged and estate was sadly neglected.The zamindars were idle and extravagant and deeply involved in debt ,and by 1856 one -half of the villages had passed into the hands of the Musalman Badgujars of Pahasu , Pindrawal ,and Chhatari in the Bulandshahr District.The present owner ,Rao Karan Singh , has increased the debt by a protracted litigation concerning his right to one -half of the estate.The suit has been decided by the Privy Council in his favour , and if he only pays attention to his estate , there can be no doubt that he will eventually be able to clear off the present encumbrances , through his ultimate success and careful managment enabled him to clear off the onecumbrances before his death in 1888. He left two widows and two daughters ,of whom the elder was married to Narayan Singh , a member of an old Katehriya family in the Rampur State , while the younger was married to Kunwar Kirat Singh of Kashipur and has no issue . Disputes arises between the two windows and a protracted suit for partition was terminated by arbitration in 1896.The elder widow died in the same year and her share went to the other widow ;but Rao Raghuraj Singh , the only surviving son of Narayan Singh ,who lives at Bajgarhi , obtained in maintenance under the award six villages in paragana Barauli with an area of 2 ,514 acres and a revenue of Rs. 4 ,055 . The younger widow , Rani Khushhal Kunwar , own 16 villages and three mahals in the same pargana , amounting in all to 11,850 acres assessed at Rs.20 ,970 . Barauli has been much improved of the late years by the canal . The families of Muhammad Ali Khan of Chhatari ,Bakir Ali Khan of Pindrawal ,and Mumtaz-ud-daula Sir Faiyaz Ali Khan , K .C.I.E ., of Pahasu , (one of the leading Musalman nobleman of the United Provinces . He belong properly to the Bulandshahr district , but is well known in Aligarh , being president of the trustees of College ), are noticed in the account of the Bulandshahr district .They are Musalman Badgujars , and have acquired by purchase considerable estates in this district.
The Badgujars of talluka Chakathal of pargana Atrauli also trace their descent from Rao Pratap Singh of Barauli .The talluka fell to the share of Dan Sahai ,one of the descendants .They held Chakathal even during the time of Akbar .
Lal Singh ,the 11th descendant of Pratap Singh ,who was a great favourite of the Emperor Akbar , given the title of Lal Khan by Akbar ; hence this branch of the family is known as by the name Lalkhani ,though he did not become a Musalman .He was the father of Salivahan or Salbahan ,who received from the Emperor Shahjahan in 1019 H(1639 A,D ) a grant of 64 villages in Pahasu ,known for a time as pargana Salbahanpur , but his son ,Itimad Rai ,the first of the family to embrace Islam during the reign of Aurangzeb, lost all property through mismanagement Mardan Ali Khan ,a descendant of Itimad Rai ,acquired few villages in the pargana of Barauli , and some in Morthal ,round about 1833 A.D . His son acquired various villages in the parganas of Tappal ,Khair ,Hathras and Atrauli during the first half of the 19th century .
A branch of the Badgujar family converted to Islam by Sabit Khan ,the well -known Governor of Koil in the beginning of the last century in 1728, owns taluka Chakathal .They claim from Dan Sahai , a lineal descendant of Pratap Singh ,and in the last century ,Rup Singh the son , and Tara Singh the grandson of Dan Sahai became converts to Islam.Tara Singh died in 1811 ,and his widow , Maha Kunwar , succeeded to the property .Maha Kunwar died in 1859.During her life , Nitanand , the father of Jawala Baksh ,Brahman , a servant of the estate , induced her to transfer it to him .On the death of Maha Kunwar , her sister Rayta Kunwar succeeded and contested the transfer to the Brahmans .The case was recent decided in the Privy Council adversely to her .One-fourth of the remainder was decreed to be the property of Aram Singh , the grandson of a consin of Tara Singh .Ratta Kunwar has mad over all her rights to Mashuk Ali Khan, the son of her daughter .The death of Ratta.Kunwar will be the signal for another appeal .The converted Badgujars of Taluka Pilkhana also belonged to the Sabit Khani family , but their importance ended with the sale of the taluka by action in 1815 , when it was purchased by Mardan Ali Khan .
.After his death ,his descendants retained their hold for some time ,to lose it latter on .The sons of Mardan Ali Khan of Chhitari originated Badgujars established many estates like Sadabad ,Danpur ,Dharampur ,Chhitari and Pahasu in Koil ,Hatharas ,Sadabad and Bulandshahr district.
1-Elliot , H.M .,Memoria ,distribution of races ,of N.W.P of India.,I.Pp.39-40. ed .John.Beans .Vol 2, London ,1869.
2-Aligarh :A gazetted of the district gazetteers of United Provinces of Agra &Qudh ,Bill .4 , by H.R.Nevill , 1909.
3-Aligarh District :A Historical Survey ,Aligarh ,Chap.VII , p.173-189.by J.M.Siddiqi .
4-Misl Bandobast , Vazibul-Arza , Mauza Tochhi , Pargana Aligarh ,1281 Hi .Fasal ,year 1873A.D.
5- The Jat rulers of Upper Doab by Jagbir Singh.
6-Statistical ,descriptive and historical account of the northwestern Provinces of India ,Meerut division pt.I , Allahabad ,Bill.II.
7-J.Thorton , Report upon .The settlement of pergunnah Moordhany .Zillah Allyaarh ,Vide Allygurh ,Statics.pp.236 ,noted in Aligarh district.
8-Baber ‘s Memoirs.
9- Elliot History II .Appendix.
10- Indian Journal of Archaeology , Voll 2 ,No .4 ,2017 by Editor Chief Vijay Kumar.
11-Raja Lachhaman Singh , Kafiat-i Bulandshahr , p.315.
12-Ibid .,p 313.
13-Hindu Tribes and Castes by M.A.Sherring .,1872.
14-Crooke William .An Enthographical Handbook for the N-W.Provinces and Qudh .1890.
15-Elliot .Supplemental Glossary.N.W.P.P.84.
16-Russel &Rai Bahadur Hira Lal .Tribes and Castes of Central provinces.
Hand book on Rajputs by Captain A.H.Bingley.1899.
Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Sasni
District -Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan ,pincode 322001.