History of Lunar Race Jaduvansis ( Jadavas / Jadons / Surasenas ) Kshatriyas of Tijara and Sarhata in Mewat Region who laterally became Khanzadahs & Meos——–
Tijara , situated on the crest of a hill ,is 48Kms to the north -east of Alwar.It was well suited for the purpose of defence , and in view of the strategical situation ,it was therefore , made the capital of Mewat in early times .Local traditions tell us that it was founded by Tejpala , Raja of Sarhata , a place 6 Kms from.Tejara.
The region of Mewat or the country of Meos may be roughly described as north-eastern Rajasthan which included the parts of Dig , Bharatpur , Gurgaon (Rewari ) and parts of Alwar .From local tradition it appears that the whole of Mewat was held by the Yaduvanshi Rajputs of Bayana from about the 8th to the 13th century . Their powerful chiefs were Mahes and. Mangal .Mahesh ,the Lord of Mewat , is said to have offered homage to Bisaladeva Chauhan of Ajmer .His descendant , Mangal , who had strengthened his position by entering into matrimonial alliance with the Dahiya Rajputs , attempted to assert his own power against the Chauhans ;but Prithviraja Chauhan III coereced him into obedience .
Largely in cooperation with the Chauhans and other dynasties in eastern Rajasthan ,they engaged in wars against the Turks ( 1 ). By virtue of their affiliation with land and their early leaders they were known as the Mewatis to the Muslim Chroniclers .They were either the agriculturist or the free-booters .They carried their arms up to the outskirts of Delhi (2 ) .They were taken as the most formidable enemies of the Ilbari Turks who had devastated their territory by carrying successful enterprises against them.
It was only after Balban had ascended the thorne that the Mewati menace was rooted out .He frist suppressed the Mewatis and captured their fortresses .Other neighbouring chiefs , who had been cooperating with them ,were also reduced to-obedience .The woods round the capital were cleared and the dens of the robbers were converted into guard -houses assigmed to Afghans .By putting a larger number of Mewatis to the sword , the region was rendered safe and freed from trouble for a long time For about a century after that the Mewatis chiefs appear to have maintained cordial relations with Turks .During this period of peace and harmony ” the Yaduvanshi Rajputs , the ancestors of the present Meos and Khan Zadas , were probably converted to Islam during the reign of Firuz Tughlug “.( 3) .
The Yaduvanshi /Jaduvanshi Rajputs of Bayana and Tahangarh have been deprived of their strongholds and territories , had emigrated to this region of Mewat. The descendants of Prithviraj of Ajmer were already living in the area now known as Ratha in Alwar district.The Jadon had established themselves at Kaman , Tijara and Sarhatta (Northern Alwar ) .These disgruntled nobles known as Mewatis combined together and formed a more or less solid block against Delhi authority.Sporadic affrays were made by them and they carried the districts of Siwalik , Hariana ,and Bayana by guerilla warfare. But Balban was able to restore prestige as well as some territories to the Delhi Sultanate .He deputed seasoned Afghans to encounter the Mewatis .
The Muslamans of jadon descent from a very large portion of the population of Eastern Rajputana , from Sohna and Alwar on the west to the Chambal on the east ,and from the bank’s of Jamuna to Karauli.and Sabal garh.
Khanzadahs ,who for several centuries were the rulers of Mewat , claim descent from the Jadon Raja Tahanpala .When Muhammad Ghori captured Yahan hath many of the Jadon families dispersed and settled wherever they could find home.One chief , named Tejpal ,found refuge with a descendants of Susarmajit , the Raja of Sarhta , and after a time founded Tejara .His palace is still pointed out in Mohalla Mirdhon of Tejara.
Raja Bandpal ,the son of Raja Tahanpala ,is said to have emigrated in Samvat 1173 or A.D. 1116 , and to have taken refuge in the hills near Kaman.His son was Ainti Pala , whose son was Adhan Pala , whose son was Insaraj , who acquired Sarhata ,near Tejara . Insaraj had five son , of whome the eldest , Lakhanpala was founder of the great family of Khanzadahs , while the other four sons are said to have become the founders of the Jadon branches of the Mevs or Meos .
Jaduvanshi Lakhanpala had two sons , Sambhar pala and Sopar Pala both of whom became Muhammadans .The former took the name of Bahadur Khan and held Sarhata ,while the latter took the name of Chajju Khan , and obtained Jhirka .From these two brothers are descended all the families who lay claim to the title of Khanzadahs. Why they become Muhammadans had not been recorded .It is a common belief that they changed their religion to save their lives ,and knowing the plundering habits of the Mewatis and their general turbulence , the belief is perhaps well founded.Another posible reason is for accepting Islam by both these brothers , that they may have embraced the Muhammadans religion for the purpose of regaining their estates of Sarhata and Jhirka ,which had been annexed to Delhi by Firoz Tugalak.The fact that the name of Jhirka was then changed to Firozpur seems to point to this conclusion ,which is rendered almost certain by the following entry in Firoz Shah’s autobiography ( 4 ) .
During the Muslim rule , Jadons of Mewat area rose in revolt frequently against the emperors of Delhi.With a view to suppressing them , Iltumish led expeditions to Mewat ,who captured Bayana , Tawangarh (Thankar ) and a part of Alwar and took prompt measures to check their power .But his success proved temporary ;and Mewatis got back the greater part of their lost territory as soon as the Turkish forces were withdrawn .As the century progressed , they continued their offensive.After Iltutmish , Balban , also took effective measures to bring the situation under control .
After the death of Firuz Shah , Bahadur Nahir who was very powerful Mewati Chief and resided in a fort (Kotal or Kotila ) in the Tijara hills ,occupied a prominent place among the nobles of Delhi.He was a gallant and active warrior and fought for Abu Bakr Shah against prince Nasiruddin Muhammad Tughluq , but in the end he suffered a severe defeat and Muhammad occupied the throne in 1339.After that Bahadur Nahir was treated as a rebel chief by Muhammad Tughluq and his successor ,Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughluq.
The genealogy of the Hindu Jadon Rajput ancestors of the Khanzadahs and Meos will then stand se follows ( 5) —
1040 A.D. —Vijaya Pal ,founded Vijayamandargarh .
1070 A.D.–Tahan Pal ,founded Tahangarh .
1216 A.D–Band Pal ,fled and founded Ajangarh .
1270A.D–Adhan Pal founded Kaltujpur in Tijara .
1300 A.D–Insaraj reigned at Sarhata .
1330 A .D -Lakhan Pal (his two sons became Musalmans ).
1360 A.D–Lakhan Pal ( became Bahadur Khan ,or Bahadur Nahar , in Sarhata , as he is more commonly called , the founder of the ruling family of the Khanzadahs of Mewat , is one of the most prominent figures in Delhi history for about a dozen years just before and after the invasion of Timur .He is said to have received the title of “Nahar “or “Tiger “, from Firoz Shah , because he had killed a tiger single-handed .His usual residence seems to have been at Kotila , a fort of difficult access on the crest of the high tange of hills about 6o miles to the south of Firozabad just outside the south gate of the modern city of Delhi or Shahjahanabad . ) and Sopar Pal ( became Chajju Khan , in Jhirka ).
1-Cunningham ,Report ,XX, ii ;Rajputana Gazetteer Vol. III., PP.167-68 ; Elliot ,Vol .IV ,. P273 ; Ojha , Rajputana , Vol . I ,p.238.,A Comprehensive History of India , Author’s chapter X , p.842.l
2-Minhas , pp.213 ,285 ,292 ,313 ,314 ;Briggs Ferishta , Vol .I.p.249 ;Ain-i-Akbari ,Vol .I., pp.3343 ,Vol.III ,p.104 ; Habibullah ,The Foundation of Muslim Rule in India pp.153 -54.
3-Briggs , Ferishta ,Vol.I ,p 255 ;A Comprehensive History of India , Vol .V ,Author’s chapter X ,p843.
4 -Elliot’s Muhammadan Historians ,Vol. III , p.386.
5-Cunnigham Reports , XX , ii ;pp .13-14.
Author–Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
Associate Prof.in Agriculture
S.C.R.S.Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan
National Media Prabhari
Akhil Bhartiya Kshatriya Mahasabha