History of Lunar Race Yaduvanshi Jadeja Rajputs of Navanagar State–

Navanagar State lies to the north -west of the peninsula of Kathiawar and  to the south of the Gulf of Kutch.The city was founded by Jam Raval in Samvat 1596 corresponding to A.D.1540 during the reign of Sultan Muhammad III , of Gujrat and the Emperor Humaiyun of Delhi.The town is almost entirely built of red stone and is surrounded by a fort which was built by Meraman Khavas in Samvat 1844 (A.D.1788) during the reign of Jam Jasaji .

The Sodhivadi is famous as having belonged to the Sodhi wife of Kunwar (usually called Jam ) Ajoji who fell at Bhuchar Morbi. Bhuchar Morbi is the place where battle took place between Mirza Khan nephew of the Vicerory of Gujrat who commanded the imperial army. Ajoji son of Jam Satarsal and his minister Jasa Ladak resolved to engage and on next day joined battle and we’re most disastrously routed.Ajoji and Jasa were slain .This place is about One mile to the north -west of Dhrol.The date of this battle given by Tarikh-i-Sorath as 1591. So great was the loss sustained by Navanagar on this fatal field that since that day the word Bhuchar Morbi has in Halar been almost synonymous with a massacre .The tomb of Jasa Ladhak , the minister of Jam Sataji (Jam Satarsal ) , who fell in the battle , is just outside the Sodhivadi .

Medieval History

The   Jam of Navanagar belongs to the great Jadav race , of which the principal subdivisions are the Jadons of Karauli ,Bhatis of Jesalmer , the Chudasamas of Saurashtra and the Jadejas of Kutch and Kathiawar .The branch of the Jadavas (great Yadavas Stock ) from which the Chudasamas and Jadejas are descended was originally called Sammas and ruled at Nagar Thatha in Sindh.
In 1537 Kutch was divided between two Jadeja chiefs, Jam Hamirji and Jam Raval.Raval treacherously killed Hamirji and seized on his dominions.Hamirji’s son Khengar fled to Ahmadabad , and ingratiating himself with the reigning Sultan of Ahmadabad , succeeded in making himself head of the tribe and master of the whole province.He also obtained from the Sultan the grant of Morbi in the north Kathiawar , with the title of “Rao ” .From Morbi Rao Khengar attacked his uncle Raval , and finally drove him from Kutch.Jam Raval fled to Kathiawar and founded the present reigning house of Navanagar , the rulers of which are still called “Jams “. Jam Raval gradually spread his power over whole of the north-west Kathiawar.Since Jam Raval established himself in Kathiawar , Dhrol ,Rajkot , Gondal ,Virpur and several minor estates have sprung from the parent stem.
Jám Rával’s invasion took place after the conquest of Gujarát by the Emperor Humaiyun, and Sultán Bahadur of Gujarat was to embarrassed during the remaining years of his life to occupy himself with the affairs of Halár, and during the reign of his successors, successive Jáms contrived to consolidate their rule over the portion of Saurashtra now known as Halár. This name was given becaus Jám Rával was a descendant of Jám Hala and hence was called Hálani. After his conquest of the north-west portion of Sorath, he called it Hálávar , now by contraction called Halár .

In the meantimo the Jethva and Vála Rajputs, joining with the Káthis and Vaghels marched against Jám Rával, who met them at the village of Mithoi, of the Khambhália parganah . Jám Rával was victorious, and prosecuting his success, he drove the Jethvás out of Halár, the Kathis to the south of the Bhadar river, the Dedas to the cast of the Machhu river, and the Vádhels across the Okha Ran, and acquired Bakota, then a great parganah, to the eastward, and extended his dominions in a southerly direction as far as Kandorna. When Jám Rával effected these conquests, he was accompanied by his brothers Hardholji, Ravoji, and Modji. Now that he had secured his conqueste he bestowed on Modji, Khandhera. Hardholji, the founder of the house of Dhrol, conquered that parganah from Dhamal Chávadn and retained it. Havoji retained Khambhálida and its subordiunte villages.

Modern History–

Sons of Jam Raval founder of Navanagar Jadeja State —

Jám Rával had three sons , Jiyoji, Vibhoji, and Bhároji; of these the elder son Jiyoji was killed by a fall from his horse near the temple of Rojhi Mata, and his son Lakha being but a child when his grandfather died, received the parganah of Khilos in appanage, and Vibhoji has uncle, the younger son of Jam Rával, succeeded to the chiefdom; Bhároji received Jambuda in appanage.

Jam Vibhoji

Jam Vibhoji succeeded to the gadi in 1562 and reigned till 1569; he confined his attention to consolidating the dominion acquired by his father, he had four sons, Satarsal, Bhanji, Ranmalji, and Veráji.

Satarsal succeeded his father, and Bhanji received Kálávad, Ranmalji Sisang, and Veráji Hadiana in appanage.

Jam Satarsal(Jam Sataji ) —

Jám Satarsál otherwise called Jam Satáji ascended the gadi in 1569. This was a time of great confusion in the affairs of Gujarat, and indeed for many years but little supervision had been exercised over Sorath. Jám Satarsál absorbed many villages of the Gujarát domain, and asserted his influence over many of his weaker neighbours.

From 1591 Navánagar was enrolled among the tributaries of the empiro, though from this date it was considered a separate State, and was not included in Sorath, though subordinate to the Foujdar of that province. Jam Satáji devoted the close of his long reign to setting the affairs of his State in order, and placing the government on a firm basis ; be reigned till A. D. 1608.   Jam Satáji had three sons , Ajoji, slain at Bhuchar Mori,  Jasoji and Vibhoji . Ajoji had two nons, Lakhoji and Vibhoji ; of these Lakhoji ,who was minor at the death of his grandfather, was then set  aside in favour of his uncle Jasoji; but on his uncle’s death, he succeeded to the gadi Vibhoji the second son afterwards acquired Chibhda, but Navánagar resumed Kálávad. Vibhoji is the founder of the house of Rájkot.

Jam Jasoji-

Jám Jasoji succeeded his father in 1608 and reigned for sixteen years, i.e. until 1624.
Jam Jasoji married the sister of Raj Chandrasinghji of Halvad. contrived some years after to administer poison to him, of which he died in 1624. Jám Jasoji dying without issue male, was succeeded by Lákho the son of his elder brother Ajojí.

Jam Lakhoji–

Jám Lakhoji succeeded his uncle in 1624 and commenced to increase his army and assert independence. In his reign the coinage of Mahmudis, or Jámis as the inhabitants of the peninsula need to call them, incrensed very largely . Jam Lákhoji died in 1645 and was succeeded by his son Ranmalji.

Jam Ranmalji mounted the throne in 1645 and married a Ráthod lady of the Jodhpur house.He has no son.
Ráisingji, brother of Ranmalji, who transacted most of the business of the State and who looked forward to succeeding his brother.
As soon as the death of Jam Ranmalji was known, the Rathod lady and her brother Govardhan proclamed Satoji as his successor, and the Bhayad were invited for the funeral ceremonies. On this occasion it was arranged by the Rathod party, that women only should enter the Darbár, and that the Bháyád should remain without. Raisingji’s party, however, of whom the leaders were Junoji of Dhrol, and Gopalsinh, a Navánagar Jamádár, arranged
that a number of armed men should be introduced into the Darbár in the chariots dressed up as women. As soon as they had entered , they massacred the garrison, and expelled the Rathod lady and her brother, and Satoji, and seated Raisingji on the throne. The Rathod lady, accompanied by her brother and her faithful follower Malik Isa, be took herself to Kutb-ud-din the Foujdar of Sorath, the acting Subbedár during Jasvantsingji of Jodhpur’s absence in the Deccan; Kutb-ud-din at once marched on Navánngar, and was met at Shekhpát by Jam Raisingji who opposed him in battle. Jám Raisingji was however slain in the fight, and Kutb ud-din took Navángar, and naming the city Islamnagar, he nunexed it and all its dependencies to the crown dominions.

Jam Tamachi–

Jam Tamáchi, son of Raisingji, who was then a minor, escaped into Cutch, and thence returning to Okhamandal ravaged the Navanagar dominions, and from his exploits was called Tamachi Tagad or Tamachi the Reiver. In 1673 Jam Tamáchi was, at the intercession of the Maharaja Jasvant singji of Jodhpur, then Viceroy of Gujarat, restored to the throne of Navánngar, although, during the reign of  Emperor Aurangzeb, the city of Navanagar itself remained in the hands of a Muhammadan Governor, the Jám residing at Khambhalia. Jam Tamáchi had a younger brother named Phalji, to whom he granted Bhánvad in gras.

Jam Tamáchi built the fort of Rával in 1679. He was succeeded in 1690 by his son Lakha , who reigned till 1709 and was succeeded by his eldest son Ráising.

Jam Raisingji–

Jam Räisingji ascended the gadi in 1709. He expelled the Muhammadan Foujdar from Navánagar, and returned thither from Khambhália.

Jám Ráisingji’s younger brother Hardholji had received the paryanah of Hariána in gras. He in 1718 murdered Raisingji and usurped the throne. A slave girl of Raising’s, concealing his young son Tamichi in a box, fled with him to Cutch, where she implored the aid of his aunt Bai Ratnaji of Bhuj. The Bai Ratnaji wrote to her brother Raj Pratapsinghji to help the Tamachi.By the Raj Pratap singhji aid seated Jam Tamachi on the throne of his ancestors.
In return for the shelter and  assistance which he had received from Bhuj ,Jam Tamachi mortagaged to Rao Desalji of Bhuj the mahals of Balambha , Amran ,&c., and the  Rao Sahib built the fort of Balambha. When Jam Tamachi  ascended the gadi ,  he, remembering what had befallen his father, dismissed all his Bhayad to their villages; amongst  these  was Háláji of Pardhari, who was  known by the name of Kakabhai , and who had been a leading spirit in  conjunction with Kutch, Halvad, and the Ahmdabad Subah ,  in Tamachi’s restoration . This Halaji was a man of most violent temper, and had not only killed numbers of persons with his own hand, but amongst others had assassinated  Thakor Aliaji of Morbi . Incensed at what he considered Tamachi’s ingratitude, , he determined to kill him,  and accordingly he sent his connection by marriage , Jhala Karsansing, a Bhayad of Wadhwan with a large following on pretence of paying the  Jam a visit. Karsansing finding an opportunity murdered JamTamachi and  though pursued managed to rejoin Halaji , who seizing on the fort of Modpur went in to  open rebellion. On hearing of the murder of Jam Tamachi his  daughter Rajkunvarbai, who had married Ramsingh ji of Jodhpur  and was at this time on a visit to her father,formed a hold resolution .  She dressed up her father as though he were alive and  placing him at a lofty window of the palace showed him to the people, who thus thought he was alive, and the Sardárs accordingly went with alacrity to pursue Karsansing. In the meantime Rajkunvarbai (as Tamichi had no son) counselled his two Ranis to each of them adopt a son secretly, and pretend that they had given birth to sons. The Ránis did so, and the eldest of the boys was named Lakhaji and the younger Ajoji, and Lakhaji was proclaimed Jam in place of his father.

Jam Lakhaji–

Jam Lakhaji reigned for twenty-four years and nine months. He married Bai Javuba of Halvad, who came to Navánngar accompanied by Nanji, Bhavan and Meráman Khavás. Moráman Khavás, who was a man of character and ability, soon acquired great influence in the counsels of the Jam, who was of weak character, and easily fell under his influence. This was however most unpalatable to Bai Javuba, who was joined by several influential persons, and they in about 1756, suddenly closing the palace gates, put Nanji Khavas, brother of Meraman, to death. Meraman however, nothing dismayed, collected his followers, and without waiting for scaling ladders, caused his men to mount on each other’s shoulders, and thus they entered the palace, and after a severe contest slew most of the garrisons and taking Bái Javuba prisoner, caused her to dismiss the remainder of her guards. The Khavás party then placed a guard of their own over hor; and Meráman Khavas conducted the ministry in a totally independent fashion, treating the Jam as a mere puppet.Things went on in this way until the death of Jám Lakhaji in 1768 , when his infant son Jam Jasoji was raised to the gidi. Jam Jasoji had a younger brother named Sataji who afterwards succeeded him. Meraman and Bhaván Khavás having now only a minor to deal with, assumed the entire power, and kept Jam Jasoji under surveillance. Rao Godji of Cutch considering this a good time to assert his claims for compensation for his exertions on behalf of Jam Tamichi, prepared an army to invade Hálár, and wrote threatening letters to Meráman Khavás. Meráman Khavás, however, far from acceding to any of his demands, marched at once with a large force on Balambha, and ere the Rao could cross the Ran captured  the town and expelled the Rao’s thanadárs . All the cannon  and munition of war in the fort fell into the hands of the Nagar army, and the Rao was forced to recross the Ran and return to Bhuj, not only without affecting anything, but having lost Bálambha which had bean in his possession.

Jam Jasaji–

In 1814 Jam Jasáji died, and was succeeded by his brother Satáji after a reign of nearly 47 years.

Jám Sataji when he succeeded to the gadi was enfeebled by opium and other excesses, and had no children, nor had any hope of offspring. Jam Sataji dead in 1820. Jam Jasaji’s widow, Ráni Achhuba, therefore adopted a son named Ranmalji, who was the son of Jádeja Jasáji of Bhanvad, and Sarodar. Before his death, Jám Jasaji had directed that Jagjivan Devji should be minister of the State, and that official conducted the affairs of the tálukah, Satáji being little better than a prisoner in the hands of his Arab Jamadárs. Ráni Achhuba was however dissatisfied that more power was not vested in her, and she encouraged one Motiram Buch to plot against Jagjivan, and with her aid Motiram commenced to intrigue. At this time, certain Maskati Ambs with the connivance of Motirám, obtained possession of the forts of Kandorna and Paddhari. Jagjivan now sought the aid of the British and Gaikwár Governments, who sent a force against Kandorna and Paddhari, and capturing both places, handed them over to the Jam in 1816, expelling the Arabs, who sought shelter with Sangram Khavis in the fort of Jodiya. The Jám Sahib, who had long been anxions to find a pretext of attacking the Khavases, be sought the English and Gaikwár armies to punish them for thus sheltering ontlaws against him, and accordingly a force under Colonel East marched against them. Sangrám Khavás lost heart, and surrendering his possessions, went to Morbi under the British guarantee. Finally, through the mediation of the British and Gáikwár Governments, Sangram Khavás received the parganáh of Ambran in jágir and Sundarji Shavji, the nativeagent of the English Government, obtained the parganahs of Jodiya and Bálambha in farm for eight years, for a yearly payment of 1,15,000 Jámi koris, though (the author of the Tarikh-i-Sorath says that) the revenue of those pargandhs exceeded 3 lakhs of Koris.Jam Sataji died in 1820 .

Jam Ranmalji

Jam Ranmalji succeeded to the throne in 1820, and quickly began to show signs that he intended to be master in his own dominions and Jamadar Fakir Muhammad, who, at the instigation of Bai Achhuba and Motírám Sámalji, had attempted to carry on the government, was by him expelled from the city, and he took the control of affairs into his own hands.

In 1824 the Jam led expedition against the Rahus of Bara and reduced them, and in 1829 he married with great pomp Bairaj, daughter of Ther Vagesingji of Bhavnagar. The Jam Ranmalji was a popular ruler and distinguished himself by the ability with which he save his people from the horrors of the  famines in Hálár in the years 1834 ,1839 and 1846 and in these years Jam Ranmalji , in order to provide employment for the labouringclass , built the Kotha and Lakhotha palaces  and excavated the tank near these palaces.  He was also famous sportsman and Lion -killer.

Jam Vibhaji —

Jám Ranmalji died in 1852, and was succeeded by his Vibhaji. During the rebellion of the Vaghers of Okha the Jam was put to much expense in endeavouring to protect the province from their raids and in efforts to capture them. In 1877 Jám Vibháji attended the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi where he received a banner from His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor General, and his salute was increased from eleven to fifteen guns. In January 1878 the Jám Sábib was made K. C. S. I. The Jam Sahib has been n shikari in his younger days, and has shot altogether three lions, one lioness, thirty-one male panthers, fifteen female panthers, and two chitals or leopards. These lions were killed as follows: One in a hill in the Modpur Sima in 1856, two in the Khodiar pass in the hills near Modpur in 1857, and the lioness in 1858 in the Bhatvári hill near Adatiána in the Porbandar territory.
Jám Vibhaji is equally distinguished as a sportsman; but he has also earned a great reputation as an administrator, especially in the departments of education and public works .He has also greatly improved the system of revenue collection, and the administration of justice within his State. On the occasion of the visit to India of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, the Jám went to Bombay to take part in his reception. Similarly, in 1875, His Highness had the honour of being one of those Princes of Western India who first received His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales on the occasion of his memorable visit to India in the winter of 1875-76. In 1877 the Jam was an invited and honoured guest at the Imperial assemblage at Delhi, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India; and he then had the honour of receiving an addition of four guns to his salute, as a personal distinction. On 1st January 1878 he was created a Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. He died in 1895.
The new Jam Ranjitsinhji

He had spent his days in school and at Cambridge excelling as a world class cricketer. Perhaps the best of his generation, this poor sighted ‘prince of the Orient’ had been the first in history to score 3,000 runs in a single season and two centuries on a single day. Immediately after his accession, he began the process of improving the administration and developing the economy of his State.

Area of State–

The state has an area of 3791 square miles .His Highness maintains a military forces of 191 cavalry , 3060 infantry and 117 guns , and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns ,including a personal salute of 4 guns.

Nawanagar Fort-

In 1788 the great fort of Nawanagar was constructed under the orders of one of Jam Rawals’descendants the Jam Jasaji .

Residence —
Nawanagar , Kathiawar .

References–

1-History of Gujarat by J.W.Watson .
2-History of Gujarat by Edalji Dosabhai.
3-The History of Sindh by K.R.Malkani.
4-Bombay Gazetteers, Kathiawar III.p ,554.
5-The Golden book of India ,a Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the ruling Princes , Chiefs by Roper Lethoridge.
6-Imperial Gazetteer of India ,v, 11.p78.
7-The Rajputs of Saurashtra by Virbhadra Singh.
8-Yaduvamsh prakash .,pp.,263-287.
9-History of Kathiyawar from Earliest Times .,p177, by Harold Wilberforce -Bell.
10-Bombay Gazetteer , 8,p-489-90, 565-66, p124-126.
11-Glimpses of Bhartiya History by Rajendra Singh Kushwaha.
12-A History of the Indian State forces by HH Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur.
13-Gujarat State Gazetteers :Rajkot.

Author- Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.

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