History of Lunar Race Yaduvansis (Yadavas /Jadavas ) Kshatriya of Dwaraka —–
Meaning of the word “Yadava and Jadava “—
The word “Yadava ” is admittedly a vedic patronymic derived from Yadu .The chiefs of this Tribe was titled as Yadava .
Mahabharat says — “It has been remberbed the Yadavas were the descendants of Yadu , the son of Yayati -Nahusa. “The Philologists declare that the ” Y” in “Yadava “may be replaced by “J” ,that is both the forms “Yadava ” and “Jadava “are permissible and therefore interchangeable . According to several historians (Wilson , Elliot ) The Yadava is a Sanskrit word and it’s hindi version is Jadon .From Yadavas to Jadavas and then to Jadons was an early etymological transformation (Cunningham.A.,p.2cf ,Gahlot, J.S.pp.593-597 )
The Yadavas are again separately treated in the purans they have no right to be Kings owing to the alleged curse of Yayati.
Real Yadava (Jadava) clans in Modern India—
The real yaduvansis or Yadava stock lunar race Rajputs are the modern Jadons ,Bhattis ,Jadejas, Chudasamas, Jadhavas ,Banafars and Wadiyars etc and their sub -branches. Their ruling States were Karauli ,Awagarh ,Kotla , Jaisalmer ,Kutch ,Devagiri ,Dwarsamudra ,Vijayanagar and Mysore .
Yadava as a Cast Symbol started Since A.D. 1920 —
In fact the word Yadava as a cast symbol was searched in 1920 A.D . , when many cattle bearer casts unitedly connecting themselves to Lord Krishna in order to raise their status.They said that Krishna also a cattle bearer and was belong progeny of Lunar race king Yadu.So all these castes belong as Yadav .But it is not true . In that time real Yadavas of Lunar race kshatriyas were using different Gotras /Surnames likes Jadon ,Bhatti ,Jadhav , Banafer , Wadiyars , Chudasama (Savaiya, Raizada ) , Jadeja and the feeling of superiority prevailed in them.
The so called historians of specific caste are creat distortion by trying to misquoting the ancient scriptures and prove the connection of their caste with the Yadu clan , which has in reality no connection to it.
Ancient History of Kushasthali /Dawarka — —
The oldest Puránic legend regarding Gujarát appears to be that of the holy king Anartta son of Saryáti and grandson of Manu. Anartta had a son named Revata, who from his capital at Kusasthali or Dwariká governed the country called Anartta. Revata had a hundred sons of whom the eldest was named Raivata or Kakudmi. Raivata had a daughter named Revati who was married to Baladeva of Kusasthali or Dwáriká, the elder brother of Krishna. Regarding Revati’s marriage with Baladeva the Puránic legends tell that Raivata went with his daughter to Brahmá in Brahma-loka to take his advice to whom he should give the girl in marriage. When Raivata arrived Brahmá was listening to music. As soon as the music was over Raivata asked Brahmá to find the girl a proper bridegroom. Brahmá told Raivata that during the time he had been waiting his kingdom had passed away, and that he had better marry his daughter to Baladeva, born of Vishnu, who was now ruler of Dwariká. This story suggests that Raivata son of Anartta lost his kingdom and fled perhaps by sea. That after some time during which the Yádavas established themselves in the country, Raivata, called a son of Revata but probably a descendant as his proper name is Kakudmi, returned to his old territory and gave his daughter in marriage to one of the reigning Yádava dynasty, the Yadavas taking the girl as representing the dynasty that had preceded them. The story about Brahma and the passing of ages seems invented to explain the long period that elapsed between the flight and the return.
The Yadava Kshatriyas in Dwariká—
The next Puranic legends relate to the establishment of the Yadava kingdom at Dwáriká. The founder and namegiver of the Yádava dynasty was Yadu of whose family the Puránas give very detailed information. The family seems to have split into several branches each taking its name from some prominent member, the chief of them being Vrishni, Kukkura, Bhoja, Sátvata, Andhaka, Madhu, Surasena, and Duśárha. Sátvata was thirty-seventh from Yadu and in his branch were born Devaki and Vasudeva, the parents of the great Yadava hero and god Krishna. It was in Krishna’s time that the Yádavas had to leave their capital Mathurá and come to Dwariká. This was the result of a joint invasion of Mathurá on one side by a legendary Deccan hero Kálayavana and on the other by Jarasandha the powerful king of Magadha or Behar, who, to avenge the death of his brother-in-law Kansa killed by Krishna in fulfilment of a prophecy, is said to have invaded the Yadava territory eighteen times.
According to the story Kálayavana followed the fugitive Krishna and his companions as far as Suráshtra where in a mountain cave he was burnt by fire from the eye of the sleeping sage Muchakunda whom he had roused believing him to be his enemy Krishna. According to the Harivansa the fugitive Yádavas quitting Mathura went to the Sindhu country and there established the city of Dwariká on a convenient site on the sea shore making it their residence. Local tradition says that the Yadavas conquered this part of the country by defeating the demons who held it.
The leading Yadava chief in Dwariká was Ugrasena, and Ugrasena’s three chief supporters were the families of Yadu, Bhoja, and Andhaka. As the entire peninsula of Káthiáváda was subject to them the Yadavas used often to make pleasure excursions and pilgrimages to Prabhás and Girnár. Krishna and Baladeva though not yet rulers held high positions and took part in almost all important matters. They were in specially close alliance with their paternal aunt’s sons the Pándava brothers, kings of Hastinapura or Delhi. Of the two sets of cousins Krishna and Arjuna were on terms of the closest intimacy. Of one of Arjuna’s visits to Káthiáváda the Mahabharata gives the following details: ” Arjuna after having visited other holy places arrived in Aparánta (the western seaboard) whence he went to Prabhás. Hearing of his arrival Krishna marched to Prabhás and gave Arjuna a hearty welcome. From Prabhas they came together to the Raivataka hill which Krishna had decorated and where he entertained his guest with music and dancing. From Girnar they went to Dwáriká driving in a golden car. The city was adorned in honour of Arjuna; the streets were thronged with multitudes; and the members of the Vrishni, Bhoja, and Andhaka families met to honour Krishna’s guest.
Some time after, against his elder brother Baladeva’s desire, Krishna helped Arjuna to carry of Krishna’s sister Subhadra, with whom Arjuna had fallen in love at a fuir in Girnár of which the Mahabharata gives the following description: A gathering of the Yadavas chiefly the Vrishnis and Andhakas took place near Raivataka. The hill and the country round were rich with fine rows of fruit trees and large mansions. There was much dancing singing and music. The princes of the Vrishni family were in handsome carriages glistening with gold. Hundreds and thousands of the people of Junagadh with their families attended on foot and in vehicles of various kinds. Baladeva with his wife Revati moved about attended by many Gandharvas. Ugrasena was there with his thousand queens and musicians. Samba and Pradyumna attended in holiday attire and looked like gods. Many Yádavas and others were also present with their wives and musicians.”
Some time after this gathering Subhadrá came to Girnár to worship and Arjuna carried her off. Eventually Vasudeva and Baladeva consented and the runaways were married with due ceremony. The large fair still held in Mágh (February-March) in the west Girnár valley near the modern temple of Bhavanath is perhaps a relic of this great Yádava fair.
The Yadava occupation of Dwariká was not free from trouble. When Krishna was at Hastinapura on the occasion of the Rájasuya sacrifice performed by Yudhishthira, Sálva king of Mrittikavati in the country of Saubha led an army against Dwariká. He slew many of the Dwarika garrison, plundered the city and withdrew unmolested. On his return Krishna learning of Sálva’s invasion led an army against Sálva. The chiefs met near the sea shore and in a pitched battle Sálva was defeated and killed. Family feuds brought Yadava supremacy in Dwariká to a disastrous end. The final family struggle is said to have happened in the thirty-sixth year after the war of the Mahábhárata, somewhere on the south coast of Káthiáváda near Prabhás or Somnath Pátan the great place of Brahmanical pilgrimage. On the occasion of an eclipse, in obedience to a proclamation issued by Krishna, the Yadavas and their families went from Dwariká to Prabhás in state well furnished with dainties, animal food, and strong drink. One day on the sea shore the leading Yadava chiefs heated with wine began to dispute. They passed from words to blows. Krishna armed with an iron rod struck every one he met, not even sparing his own sons. Many of the chiefs were killed. Baladeva fled to die in the forests and Krishna was slain by a hunter who mistook him for a deer. When he saw trouble was brewing Krishna had sent for Arjuna. Arjuna arrived to find Dwariká desolate. Soon after Arjuna’s arrival Vasudeva died and Arjuna performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva , Baladeva and Krishna whose bodies he succeeded in recovering. When the funeral rites were completed Arjuna started for Indraprastha in Upper India with the few that were left of the Yádava families,
The following is the legend of Krishna’s iron flail. Certain Yadava youths hoping to raise a laugh at the expense of Visvámitra and other sages who had come to Dwarika presented to them Samba Krishna’s son dressed as a woman big with child. The lads asaked the sages to foretell to what the woman would give birth. The sages replied: ” The woman will give birth to an iron rod which will destroy the Yadava race.” Obedient to the sage’s prophecy Samba produced an iron rod. To avoid the ill effects of the prophecy king Ugrasena had the rod ground to powder and cast the powder into the sea. The powder grew into the grass called Eraka Typha elephantina. It was this grass which Krishna plucked in his rage and which in his hands turned into an iron fail. This eraka grass grows freely near the mouth of the Hiranya river of Prabhas.
Chiefly women On the way in his passage through the Panchanada or Panjab a body of Abhiras attacked Arjuna with sticks and took several of Krishna’s wives and the widows of the Andhaka Yadava chiefs. After Arjuna left it the deserted Dwarika was swallowed by the sea.
This suggests that as in early times the Great Ran was hard to cross the way from Kathiavada to Indraprastha or Delhi was by Kachch and Sindh and from Sindh by Multán and the Lower Panjab. According to the Bhagavata Purána Krishna took the same route when he first came from Indraprastha to Dwariká. On the other hand these details may support the view that the head-quarters of the historio Krishna were in the Panjab.
1-The Vishnu Parána (Aufa iv. Chap. i. Verse 19 to Chap. ii. Verse 2) gives the longest account of the legend.
2-The Bhagavata Purána (Skanda ix. Chap. iii. Verse 16-36) gives almost the same account.
3- The Mataya Purána (Chap. xii. Verse 22-24) dismisses the story in two verses.
4- Harivania, X.
5- Compare Máhábh. II. 13,594. Jarasandha’s daughters Asti and Prapti were married to Kansa. Hari-vansa, XXXV. – CXII.
6-Mahabharata Adiparva, chapa, 218-221.
Author- Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.