History of Yaduvanshi (Jadon in Hindi and Puranic Yadavas in Sanskrit ) Lunar Race Kshatriyas Bhatis of Jaisalmer —–
The origin of the Bhati State of Jaisalmer is shrouded in fable and legend .The Khyats ascribe to the Bhatis a lunar race origin and consider them descendants of the Yadava dynasty ( 1) .Their ancestral residence was the western part of Punjab where they are said to have founded several towns , each associated with some section of the tribe .
In tracing the early history of the Bhatis , several hypotheses present themselves , and we propose to select one of them , which rests on plausible grounds , in order to give a brief and connected account of the early history of this tribe .Although the ruler , who founded the dynasty , retained the epithet of Yadava , one of his descendants , Bhati ( fifth in the line ) , who was a renowned warrier and subdued many neighbouring chiefs , gave the new title of Bhati to this dynasty .He is designated as Maharawal in the Khyats and is credited with having founded the town of Bhatner in the Punjab ( 2) .
Conflict with the Turkish Invaders —-
It is likely that during the period of their stay in the Punjab the Bhatis came into conflict with the Turkish invarders .On being pressed by these invasions Maharawal Deva Raj ( eleventh in the line ) abandoned his original home , and settled in the desert of the north-eastern region of Rajasthan , which has since then been the home of their descendants .In one of his exploits Deva Raj subdued the Lodra Rajputs , and captured the city of Lodrawa and made it his capital about beginning of the eleventh century ( 3 ) .
Deva Raj’s grandson , Vachha Raj ( thirteenth in the line ) , who was endowed with considerable courage and energy , devoted himself to extending the limits of his kingdom. Vachha Raj and his successors measured swords with various clans , such as the Bhuts , the Channas ,the Barahas , the Langahars ,the Sodhas and the Lodras .They also strengthened their position by entering into matrimonial alliances with the neighbouring chiefs ( 4) .
At the time of Bhojdeva ( sixteenth in the line ) his uncle , Jaisal deva , moved by jealousy , conspired to kill him ; but since he was always surrounded by his guards , Bhojadeva was personally unassailable .Jaisal , therefore , sought the help of Muizzuddin Ghuri and successfully ousted his mephew from power , and occupied his throne . Finding Lodrawa or ( Lodrova ) , the former seat of the Bhatis , ill-adapted for defence , he established the capital of his kingdom at Jaisalmer ( 5) .
Conflict With Khizr Khan and Ala-ud-din Khilji —–
About 1200 A.D , Kailan (1200-1218 ) was the ruler of Jaisalmer .He repulsed an invasion led by Khizr Khan , a Baluchi chief who ,having crossed the Indus had entered Khadala .One of Kailan’s descendants , Karan Singh , protected Bhagwati Das Jhala from Izzuddin ,the governor of Nagaur , who wanted to compel the Rajput chief to give the hand of his beautiful daughter to him .Karan Singh attacked Nagaur and defeated and killed the gorvenor ( 6) .
Concerning the history of Delhi sultans , reference is made by the Rajputs chronicles to the compaign of Ala-ud-din Khalji in the time of Maharawal Jait Singh I, who ascended the thorne of Jaisalmer in 1276. The sultan is said to have invaded Mandor , from where Rana Rupsi fled to seek shelter in Jaisalmer .This led prince Mulraj to plunder the imperial treasure while on its way from Bhakkarkot to Delhi , and the Sultan was provoked to diverting a part of his army to Jaisalmer .The Maharawal stood a prolonged siegevwhich , according to Nensi , lasted for about twelve years ( 1300-1312) .This brought untold suffering to the garrison owing to the scarcity of food and provisions . In sheer desperation the Rajputs ladies performed Jauhar and the soldiers led by Mulraj and his brother , Ratan Singh ,rushed out of the fort and died fighting to the last man . Jaisalmer remained in the hands of the Turks for the next two years .In the end it was restored by Nasiruddin Khan to Maharawal Ghadsi ( 7) .
Conflict With Neighbouring Clans —-
After the death of Maharawal Jait Singh ,a number of rulers ascended the thorne of Jaisalmer .Most of them were involved in the local conflicts with the neighbouring clans of the north and north-west and the rulers of Multan and Amarkot .An instance in point is that Maharawal Vairsi ( 1336-1448 ) , who helped Rao Jodha , the founder of Jodhpur , to recover his patrimony near about Mandor , which had been seized by the state of Mewar ( 8) .His successor , Chachak II (1448-62 ) , fought with the Langah chief of Multan and lost his life during the struggle ( 9 ). He was engaged in a struggle with Rao Bika and interfered with the latter’s efforts in consolidating his power at Bikaner ( 10 ) .During the time of his successor , Jait Singh II (1497-1529 ) , the state of Bikaner became aggressive .The Rao of Bikaner attacked Jaisalmer , plundered the state extensively , not even sparing the capital , but in the end came to terms ( 11 ) .
The Bhatis , as a puranic Yadava ( Sanskrit ) or Jadon ( Hindi ) tribe , spread over an extensive belt of southern Punjab and north-western Rajasthan , including Jiasalmer ,Bhawalpur , Bhatner ,Nariana and Bayana .Some of its leading chiefs were valiant fighters and displayed extraordinary vigour and intrepidity in dealing with their foes . They were patrons of public works .In the course of their long predominance of about four centuries , various temples and lakes were constructed .The famous temple Lakshninath and that of the Sun-god of Jaisalmer are ascribed to Rao Lakshnana and Rao Vairsi .Similarly , Jaisaldeva ,Ghadsi and Jaitsi constructed the dams of the lakes of Jaisalmer , Ghadsisar and Jaitbundh respectively .It was through their efforts that it became possible to consolidate and sustain local independence ( 12 ) .
Bhatties of United provinces (U.P.) –
In these Provinces , they are also known as jaiswar. They claim to be jadauns who returned from beyond the Indus in the seventh or eighth century. A large number of them became muhammadans in the time of Qutb-ud-din & Ala-ud-din. They say they came to bulandshahr under Kansal, or as other say,Deo and kare, in the time of prathviraj,having ejected Meos. They are devided into clans- Bhatti and jaiswar. The former is superior of the two, the latter having intermarried with spurious rajputs. A majority of the clan are now reckoned as Gujars. Another story is they are descended from Raja Dalip, son of jaswant Rao of Nana mau, near Bithur. He had two sons, Bhatti and Ranghar ; their descendants settled in Bhatiyana; the branch converted to Islam was called ranghar. The national dress is not trousers and waist clath, but a broad sheet of carse cloth, plain or checked which reaches from the neck to the ankle and is tied at the waist. The Muhammadan Bhattis along the kali Nadi in the Etah district are a Turbulent, idle set , much dread by their neighbours.
1-The relation between the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Yadavas of Rajasthan ( jaisalmer and Karauli ) is not known .But it is not unlikely that they were related , for both are known to claim their descent from Lord Shri Krishna , who ruled Dwaraka ,after the death of Krishna , the tribe was dispered ,some members proceeded northwards and others southwards .After several generations the branches of the tribe established themselves in independence in their respective regions of north and south .
2-Tod ,Annals .Vol .II,1176 ,1183 .
4-Bhatti Kavya , vv,87 111 ,180 ,184 ; Tod ,Annals ,Vol .II ,1201.
5-Bhatti Kavya ,vv .205 ,206 etc ; Jaisalmer Khyat ; Tod , Annals ,Vol .II, 1204.
6-Tod ,Annals ,Vol II.1210 .
7- Nensi Khyats , Vol .II., 295 ,482 ( kasha ed.) ; Tod , Annals ,Vol II.,1216 .
8-Vairsi Inscription ,V.S.1493 , 1497 .
9- Chachak Inscription , V.S.1518 .
10- Jaisalmer Khyat .
11- Gahlot , Rajputana –ka –Itihas , 668.
12- Bhatti Kavya ,vv.87-236 .
Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota , near Sasni
District -Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof of Agric .Soil Sci.
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt .College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan , 322