History ( part I ) of Navanagar Princely State of Yadava Stock Jadeja Rajputs Since ancient period to A.D.1742–
Area-3,791 sq. miles. Population.-316,147.
Revenue. 24,00,000 rupees.
Nawanagar is bounded on the north by the Gulf of Kutch and beyond it by Kutch proper; on the east by the Native States of Morvi, Dhrol and Rajkot; on the south by the minor Talukas in Halar and the State of Porbandar; while on the west by Okhamandal and the Arabian Sea.
The Jam Saheb of Nawanagar belongs to the Jadeja tribe of Rajputs of the Lunar race. In the Yadava family, fifty-four degrees removed from Shri Adya Narayan* (the primeval Lord), there flourished the celebrated Shri Krishna, believed to be the incarnation of God Vishnu. He established himself in Dwarka, where even up to the present day his image is wor shipped as God. He had a son, named Samba, by his wife, Jambuvanti, who married Rama, the daughter of Kaubhand, prime minister to Banasur **, the king of Shonitpur in Egypt. He had a son by this wife, named Ushnik. When the Yadavas destroyed themselves Ushnik was in Shonitpur and thus escaped destruction. Banasur was after his death succeeded by Kaubhand and after his death Ushnik ascended the throne of Shonitpur. Devendra flourished in his line, 79th degree removed from him. He had four sons Aspat (Ugrasen) Gajpat, Narpat, and Bhupat. Of these Aspat embraced Mahomedanism; the descendants of Gajpat, esta blished a large kingdom in Sorath and came to be known by the name of Chudasama after his son, Chud Chandra. Bhupat seized upon certain tracts in Marwad and became the founder of the Bhatti dynasty. The rulers of Jesalmere are his descendants. Narpat, his third son, assumed the title of Jam, having killed Feroze Shah, the ruling sovereign of Ghazni, and usurped his throne.
Sultan Saheb, the son of Feroze Shah, succeeded in recapturing Ghazni from Samat, the son of Narpat, who thereupon fled to Sindh and there established an independent principality. His descendants assumed the name of ‘Sama‘ after him, leaving aside the appellation of ‘Yadav.’ In his line, nine degrees removed from him, there flourished one Lakhiyar Bhad. He at the instance of one Nagar Mohon founded a city and named it Nagar Samai, to perpetuate the memory of himself and his Sama descend ants and made it his capital. It is now known by the name of Nagar Thatha. Lakhiyar Bhad, had a son, named Lakho Ghuraro. He had married princess Bothi, the daughter of Viramdev, the Chavada ruler of Patgarh in Kutch. This marriage was blessed with four sons, of whom Mod and Manai stayed in Kutch with their uncle. They treacherously murdered him and seized his throne. In the line of Mod, fourth degree removed from him, flourished Lakho Phulani. He, dying without issue, was succeed ed by his nephew, Puwaro, the son of Jam Ghao. He also died childless and Lakhaji and Lakhdhir, the sons of Jam Jado, the then reigning prince of Sindh, sixth in descent from Unand, the step-brother of Mod and Manai, were summoned to the throne of Kutch (1147). They were the sons of Veroji, though they were adopted by Jam Jado. It was from this chief that his descendants assumed the patronymic of Jadejas. It is also said that Lakhaji and Lakhdhir were twin brothers. In the Sindhi language such twin-born brothers are styled Jado’ and it must be owing to this. circumstance that their descendants assumed the name of Jadeja ***, What ever may be the origin of the name it is unquestionable that the Jadejas came into existence for the first time from this date.
Raydhanji, the son of Jam Lakhaji, had four sons Dedoji, Othoji, Gajanji and Hothiji. Of them, Dedoji received Kanthkot; Othoji got Lakhiyar Viyaro (Bhuj ) the then capital of Kutch, Gajanji received Bada paragna; while Hothiji was given Gajod and twelve villages. These brothers also assumed the title of Jam.’
Hamirji was eighth in descent from Othoji, who had inherited the throne of Kutch. He treacherously murdered Lakhoji, tenth in descent from Gajanji of Bada. Jam Lakhoji had four sons, Jam Rawal, Hardhelji, Rawaji and Modji. They avenged the murder of their father by killing Hamirji and conquering his dominions.
Hamirji had four sons, Aliyoji, Khengarji, Raybji and Sahebji and a daughter, named Kamabai. The princess was given in marriage to the celebrated Mahmud Begara, the Emperor of Ahmedabad. The four princes with the help of their Moslem kinsman, Mahmud Begara, conquered Kutch from Jam Rawal. Khengarji **** , the bravest of them all, was installed on the gadi with the title of Rao’.
After the defeat and dethronement of Jam Rawal, he with his three brothers, Hardholji, Rawaji, and Modji, crossed the Runn and settled in Saurashtra, i-e Sorath, in 1535. At that time the whole peninsula of Kathia wad went by the name of Saurashtra. All the territory on the banks of the Aji was then held by Deda Tamachi, a descendant of Dadarji. The Jams requested him to supply them with provisions. Deda Tamachi sent cattle loaded with dust instead of grain. This was enough to enrage Jam Rawal, but his brother, Hardholji, thinking it inadvisable to take any action at such an inauspicious + moment, they encamped with their troops at Dahisara, near Amran. They gradually conquered the whole territory of Deda Tamachi, situated on the banks of the Aji, and then by degrees they began overrunning the surrounding districts. They subsequently established their independent authority over Nagna Bandar and the adjacent territory, which they conquered from Khemaji, the Jethwa Chief of Ranpur. Ranpur was then the seat of government of the Jethwa rulers of Porbandar. Jam Rawal in 1539 founded the city of Nawanagar on the site of Nagna Bandar. In addition to the territory they obtained from the Jethwas, the Jam brothers succeeded in subjugating the eastern districts, then held by Chavadas. They reduced to submission the western territory, including Khambhalia, from the Deda and the Vadhela tribes. They were thus able to consolidate a vast kingdom in a very short time, to which they gave the name of Halar, in honour of Halaji, the son of Gajanji, who had inherited the district of Bada in Kutch.
Hardholji, Rawaji and Modji, the three brothers of Jam Rawal, who had also left Kutch with him, received in appanage the Paragnas of Dhrol Khelor, and Khedera with twelve other villages attached to each of them. Colonel Walker on the other hand says that Hardholji conquered from the Chavada chieftain Dhrol with 140 villages and established an independent principality.
Descendants of Jam Raval of Navanagar–
Jam Rawal died in 1562. His eldest son, Jiyoji, had died during the Jam’s life-time, leaving a son, named Lakhaji. He was, however, superseded by his uncle, Jam Vibhaji, the second son of Jam Rawal, who ascended the throne. Jam Vibhaji ruled for 7 years and died in 1569. He had four sons, Sataji, Ranmalji, Bhanji and Veraji. Of these Sataji, the eldest, succeeded to the throne, while the other princes got the districts of Sisang, Virpur, and Hadiana with twelve villages appended to each.
On the death of Khimaji, the Jethwa Chief of Ranpur, in 1550, he was succeeded by Ramdeji. He was the son of Jam Sataji’s sister. In spite of such a close relationship, the Jam thought of seizing the whole territory of the Jethwa Chief and accordingly invited Ramdeji to his court at Nawanagar. Ramdeji did not visit his uncle for a time, as he was all the while suspecting his sincerity. At last in 1574, he was prevailed upon by a Charan, named Kavidas, to accept the invitation of the Jam. The unfortunate Jethwa Chief was treacherously murdered and the wily Jam sent an army to Ranpur, which fell into his hands without any resistance. Jam Sataji stamped one of his own coins and placing it in a bag with the King’s coin, sent it to Muzaffar Shah III. with the following message. The Rajputs give their daughters in marriage to you I give my daughter, coin, in marriage to your imperial coin.’ The Moslem ruler was highly elated with this vein of flattery and accorded the Jam the permission of stamping his own coins. This coin was formerly called ‘Kunwari’ (Princess’) but subesquently it lost its distinguishing name and came to be known as ‘Kori’.
In 1573 the great Mughal Emperor, Akbar, conquered Gujarat from the hands of Muzaffar III. who escaped to Rajpipla. Shah-bud-din Ahmud Khan, the representative of the Mughal Emperor in Gujarat, sent an army in 1577 against Amin Khan, the Suba of Junagarh. Amin Khan then asked for the assistance of Jam Sataji. Their combined troops succeeded in driving away the invading army. In return, the Suba of Junagarh bestowed upon the Jam the districts of Jodhpur, Chur and Bhod.
The fugitive monarch of Gujarat, Muzaffar shah III. fled towards Raj pipla in 1573. He arrived at the court of Nawanagar in 1591 and sought the assistance of Sataji. Ajij Koka, the Mughal Suba of Gujarat, hear ing this, marched upon Nawanagar to apprehend him. Jam Sataji, with his second son, Jasaji, met the approaching army near Dhrol. Dolat Khan the son of Amin Khan of Junagarh, and Loma Khuman a brave Kathi of Kundla, proceeded to reinforce the Jam’s troops. The rival armies met on the outskirts of Dhrol and a bloody battle ensued. The contest commenced early in the dawn and lasted till midday without any decisive result. Dolat Khan and Loma Khuman at last deserting the Jam’s cause, left the field of battle. The Jam’s army, rendered spiritless by such desertion, began to give in. The Jam, who was then seated on an elephant, alighted and at once fled to Nawanagar on horse-back. Prince Jasaji and the Diwan, however, rallied the troops and maintained the field against the Moslem invaders. Ajaji, the eldest son of Sataji, who had stayed back in the capital on account of his approaching marriage, hearing of the cowardly flight of his father, at once rode to the scene of action. On Ajaji’s reaching Dhrol, the contest between the Mussalmans under Ajij Koka and the Jadejas under their new leader, Ajaji, grew more fierce than before. In this melee Ajaji and the Diwan fell and many of the otits that had come to the succour of the Jam were either killed or wounded. Jasaji had now to fight single-handed against such fearful odds. Thinking defeat to be inevitable, he fled to Nagar with his remaining troops. Ajij Koka followed him thither, where upon Jam Sataji packed off all his wives in boats, with instructions that if the Mahomedans should overtake then, they must drown the boats in the sea and thus perish in the waves. He himself took refuge in the neigh bouring hills. Ajij Koka made his triumphant entry into Nawanagar un opposed and unfurled the Moslem standard on the walls of the Jam’s capital. He placed several Thanas (outposts) in the surround ng d stricts.
Kalanbai, the wife of Bhanji, who was the son of Ramde, the late Jethwa Chief of Ranpur, taking advantage of Jam Sataji’s absence, raised an army consisting of Mors and Rabaris and regained her lost territory as far as Ranpur. She made Chhanya her capital and proclaimed her son, Khimaji, the lord of the new principality. The Jams have never been able subsequently to reconquer this chiefdom.
Ajij Koka once more marched against Nawanagar within a short space of eight months. Jam Sataji agreed to pay tribute to the Emperor and a peace was concluded between them, by which the territory of Nawanagar was restored to Sataji. After a short time Ajij Koka learning that Muzaffar Shah was flying about in Okhamandal, sent a small detachment after him, under the command of Naurang Khan. Muzaffar fled to Kutch on the approach of Naurang Khan to Okhamandal. Koka sent his son, Abdul Khan, to Kutch in pursuit of the flying monarch. Rao Bharmalji had given shelter to the unfortunate Muzaffar at his court, but fearing an invasion from the Suba of Gujarat, he handed over his refugee to Abdul Khan. On his
way to Ahmedabad, Muzaffar terminated his life by cutting his throat with a razor.
Jam Sataji, after reigning for 49 years, died in 1608. He had three sons, Ajaji, Jasaji, and Vibhaji. Of these the eldest, Ajaji, had fallen on the field of Dhrol, while fiercely fighting with the Mussalmans, leaving behind hun two sons, Lakhaji and Vibhaji. Jasaji, the uncle, ascended the throne, setting aside the claims of his two nephews. He bestowed the district of Kalawad upon his younger brother, Vibhaji The chief of Sardhar was related to him (Vibhaji) on his mother’s side. He conquered Sardhar and Rajkot with the help of his brother, Jam Jasaji, and founded an independent sovereignty. In return. Vibhaji restored to Jam Jasaji the district of Kalawad and other villages which were previously conferred upon him. Jam Jasaji had married the sister of Chandrasinhji, the Raj of Halwad. Once while playing at chess with the Jhala queen the Jam captur ed her knight (horse in Gujarati). The queen in anger retorted. ‘It is no great thing for you to seize a horse from me, a woman, but if you can take a horse from my brother, then you are indeed a Raja.’ The Jam bore this insulting retort in mind and when after a few days he happened to send some of his courtiers to the court of Halwad on a visit of condolence to the Raj on the death of one of his sons, the Jam secretly advised them to capture Chandrasinhji and bring him a prisoner to Nawanagar. His mandate was obeyed to the very letter, but one Shankardas, a Nagar by caste, intervened in favour of Chandrasinhji and obtaining his release, sent him back to Halwad. The Jhala queen was not a woman of an ordinary type. Stung to the quick at the indignity thus offered to her brother, she avenged the insult by poisoning her husband, Jam Jasaji, in 1624.
Jam Jasaji died without issue and was succeeded by his nephew, Lakhaji. This was the same Lakhaji, who was superseded by Jasaji after the death of Jam Sataji. In the reign of Emperor Shah Jehan, who was on the Imperial Musnad, when Lakhaji assumed the reins of govern ment at Nawanagar a succession of effete Subas carried on the government of Gujarat. Jam Lakhaji taking advantage of this circumstance, increased his army, extended the circulation of Kories and stopped the payment of the Imperial tribute. Ajam Khan was shortly after appointed Suba of Gujarat. He marched upon Nawanagar and collecting all the outstanding tribute, stopped the circulation of Kories. Immediately after his departure, however, the Kories were circulated as freely as before.
Jam Lakhaji died in 1645, leaving behind him seven sons, of whom the eldest, Ranmalji, succeeded him. He bestowed upon his brothers, Ray sinhji, Jasaji, Harbhamji, Kasanji and Sataji, the Jugirs of Amran, Dhrapha, Mokhana, Bed, and Khan-kotda respectively. One of his brothers, Dungarji, had died in childhood. Jam Ranmalji died in 1661. Nothing worth re cording is known of him save that he was married to the daughter of the Maharaja of Jodhpur.
Jam Ranmalji died childless and was succeeded by Raysinhji, who had obtained the Jagir of Amran. The succession of Raysinhji deprived the queen-dowager, the widow of Ranmalji, of all her influence. She there fore went with her brother to Ahmedabad, obtained an interview with Kut-bud-Din, the then reigning Suba of Gujarat, and incited him to march upon Nawanagar. In a fierce battle that took place in 1664, between the Suba and the Jam, the latter lost his life, and Nawanagar fell into the hands of the victors.
Raysinhji had at the time of his death a son, named Tamachi: but as he was still a mere boy he hal to seek shelter at the court of Praginalji, then reigning in Kutch. When he became of age he went to Okha mandal and began to plunder the territory under Nawanagar. At last in 1673 on the recommendation of Jaswantsinbji, the Suba of Gujarat, Emperor Aurangzeb restored to Jam Tamachi all his dominions. Rao Pragmalji of Kutch also assisted Tamachi in regaining his lost domains. Though the territory of Nawanagar was restored to Tamachi in its entirety, a Mahomedan officer still remained at Nawanagar. The Jam therefore took up his residence at Khambhalia. He gave to his brother, Falji, the Giras of Bhanvad.
Jam Tamachi died in 1690, and was succeeded by Jam Lakhaji, who after reigning for 19 years died in 1709. He had two sons, Ray sinhji and Hardholji, of whom the elder, Raysinhji, succeeded to the throne, while to Hardholji was given the Jagir of Hadiana. Jam Raysinhji expelled the Mughal officer out of Nawanagar and himself changed his residence from Khambhalia to Nawanagar. Ajitsinhji, the Maharaja of Jodhpur, who was appointed Suba of Gujarat in 1715-16, marched upon Halwad and Nawanagar. The Jam paid a tribute of 3 lakhs of rupees and presented him with 25 of his best horses. Ajitsinhji, pleased with the friendly conduct of the Jam, returned to Ahmedabad after paying homage to the deity at Dwarka. In 1718, Hardholji, the Giras holder of Hadiana, killed
his brother, Jam Raysinhji, and usurped his throne. Jam Raysinhji had a son, named Tamachi, but as he was then quite an infant, one of the maids of-honor concealed him in a box, took him to Bhuj and entrusted him to the care of his aunt, Ratnajiba. The mother of Tamachi was the sister of Pratapsinhji, the chief of Halwad. With a view to advance the claim of his nephew to the throne of Nawanagar, Pratapsinhji married one of his daughters to Sher Buland Khan, the Suba of Gujarat, and gave the hand of his brother’s daughter in marriage to Babi Salabat Mahmud Khan. With the help of these two Moslemn officers he succeeded in seating his nephew, Tamachi, on the throne of Nawanagar (1727).
Jam Tamachi II. gave in mortgage the districts of Balambha, Amran and others to Rao Desalji of Bhuj. The Rao caused a large citadel to be built at Balambha in 1737. Mirza Jafar alias Momin Khan, the Mughal Suba of Gujarat, invaded Nawanagar in 1742. The Jam marched against the Suba who was however prevailed upon to return on the payment of a tribute of R- 50,000 by the Jam.
*Yadu preceded Shri Krishna, being 44th in descent from Adya Nariyen. The Yadava derived their name from this Yadu.
* Aniruddha, the grandson of Shri Krishna, had married Okha, the daughter of Banasur.
There is a couplet which rune:
***There is a couplet which rune:
Lakho and Lakhdhir, they were bora twins, Lakho the eldest of Veroji, hence were they called Jadejas
****The descendants of Khengarji are still raling over Kutch. It was this Khengarji, who in 1549 founded the city of Bhuj which still continued to be the metropolis of Kutch.
+ Dust is considered a bad omen.
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16-History of the Dhrangadhra state by C.Mayne.
17-History of Sama and Soomra Rajputs of western India by Bipin Shah
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.