Jadu ruler Vijayapal of Bayana(Sripatha) raised the high flag of “Hindwan ” in foreign Countries—
Maharaja Vijayapal of Shripatha (Bayana ) , the 88th in descent of Shri Krishna.He was a powerful ruler , and he extended his empire .The Surasena Yadava dynasty of Karauli began with Vijayapala .He migrated from Mathura and settled in the hilly region of eastern Rajasthan , where he laid the foundation of a fort after his own name and the capital of Vijaymandirgarh in 1040A.D.The territory round it , in course of time , became famous after the name of the fort.This fort was later on also known as Bayana fort.Maharaja Vijayapala was also known as the real founder of Yadava clan Rajput’s Chiefs of Karauli.They laterally called Jadons.
Jadons being one of the principal existing divisions of the Lunar race , and as claiming to be the direct descendants of Shri Krishna , the God and Hero of Braj or Mathura .Shri Krishna and his marvellous boyhood , his military exploits and ultimate expulsion from Mathura to Dwarka in Gujrat , and begin with Vijaypal , who appears to be the first of the line likely to prove an historical character , through materials other than those procurable at Karauli are requisite to make him such.
According to Karauli authorities , Maharaja Vijaypal came from Mathura to the hill Mani , where in Samabat 1052 (A.D.995) he built a fort , under the protecting shadow of which the well -known town of ” Biana ” now in Bharatpur territory .
Vijayapala was son of Jayendra Pala ruler of Mathura.During the time of Jayendra Pal (Indra pal ) father of Vijaypal , Mewat came under the control of Nikumbh Rajputs .We can not ascertain that before 1036 CE Vijay Pal had any claim over the region of Bayana or Mewat .
From Ingnoda inscription of VS 1190 it appears that until the commencement of 12th century Partihars of Kannauj continued to exercise their political influence over Bayana and Mewat .It is possible that in the initial years of his reign over Vijaygarh or Bayana Vijaypal might have accepted the suzerainty of Partihars.
Maharaja Vijaypal faught several battles with neighbouring Rulers—
The Karauli “Jagas ” or bards , declare that Vijaypal dominions extended to Hindustan , Gujrat , the Dakhan , Telangana , Bhutan and Nepal .According to them he exacted acknowledgment of sovereignty from many Rajas.Vijayapal after the accession followed a vigorous policy towards his neighboring powers and faught several battles with Chalukyas of Gujrat , Guhilots of Mewar , Tanwars of Delhi , Johiyas of Jangaldesh , Parihars of Mandor , Chauhans of Ajmer ,,along with power of Panchal and Marudesh .Chroniclers also admit that his victory over Chalukyas proved disastrous for him because it alarmed the Ghaznavids .In order to eliminate the possibilities of his growing power they attacked Vijayamandirgarh and killed him.He had eighteen sons and among them, those who were ambtious , carved out their separate principalities.
Maharaja Vijayapala takes part in many foreign battles—
Maharaja Vijaypal of Jadon race of Bayana had participated in the many battles fought in the country of Turan , Iran , Rum , Avar and Turkistan .He defeated several Tigins and Amirs and raised the high flag of ” Hindwan “in foreign countries .He suppressed the rebellions and conquered the land of Kabul , Kandhar ,Bangas and Khurasan .It is difficult to belive that a king from a small place Bayana or Vijayagarh , in all probabilities he seems to have participated in all these battles on the behalf of a powerful king.Vijayapal was contemporary of both Mahmud and his son Ma’sud .
The couplet (Chhapaya),part of the account entitled as “Jadon Vanshiyonka Itihas;mentions that the king Vijaypal in 1036 C E became independent and assumed the designation of “Tigin;He used the title of “Tigin”in the sense of Chhatrapati.Generally this title of “Tigin” for chiefs and rulers remained popular in the frontier regions and Khurasan.This development clearly suggests about the different kind of political background Vijaypala had passessed.He became independent in the sixth year of the reign of Ma,sud.Bayana inscription of V .S 1100 further confirmed his position as independent ruler.In the fifth year of his reign Ma’sud had demanded money from Mahmudiyans and they in protest left his kingdom.According chroniclers Vijaypal after his accession faced the invasion of ane Ali(Abu’Ali, Kotwal of Ghazna) but succeeded in repulsing him.It appears that at first Abu’Ali might have tried to persuade Vijaypal to accompany him to return the money which he had received from Muhammad.But after finding that his efforts are not bringing desirable results he decided to attack Bayana.However ,Vijaypal remained successful in defending his citadel.The enmity aroused between Sultan and his old nobie did not stopped there.
During the reign of Mausud ,son and successor of Ma’Sud , the Kotwal of Kandhar (Ghazna), Abu Bakr in 1046 C E invaded the principality of Vijaygarh and couquered it.Abu Bakr was son and successor of Abu’ Ali .Vijaypal was killed in the battle and 360 womens of Royal House hold performed JAUHAR.
Foundation of Tahangarh fort and Shifting of the Jadon family —-
There after the family of raja Vijaypal of Bayana moved to Tahangarh or Timangarh.
Tahanpala (1093-1159) son of Vijayapala was also a powerful king of this Jadon dynasty.In the course of a long reign of Sixty-Six years he did much to increase the power of his kingdom by constructing the fort of Tahangarh (the Thankar of persian historians ),( 22kms ), fifteen miles towards south-east of Bayana.By making fresh conquests , he extended his kingdom by bringing within it the major parts of Dang ,Alwar , Bharatpur ,Dholpur ,Gudgaon ,Mathura , Agra and Gwalior .His political sovereignty over the wide expanse of territory is further established by his title of Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraj Parameshwara .
In sambat 1147 (A.D.1090) Timanpal died .
The two succeeding ruler Haripala and Dharmpala,who followed Tahangarh ,could not maintain their hold over their patrimony ,partly due to the conflicts within the family and partly owing to the growing power of their feudatories.They also failed in opposing Muizzuddin Ghauri ,who took possession of Bayana and Tahangarh.(or Thankar)in 1196 A.D.
Tahanapala was followed in succession by Dharmapala ,Kunwarapala ,and Ajayapala .Cunningham suggests that there is a chronological suggests that there is a chronological error in placing Kunwarpala before Ajayapala.But ,this view does not seem to be correct.Both Kunwarpala ,and Ajayapala were ruling over two different principalities simultaneously .Kunwarala was king of Tribhuvanagiri in 1157 A.D.when Jinachandrasuri visited that place.It is known from the Mahaban Prasasti found near Mathura that Maharajadhiraj Ajayapala was ruling in 1150 A.D.The tradition mentions Haripala as son and successor of Ajayapala.An inscription of Haripala ,dated A.D.1170 has been found at Mahavan.Haripala was succeeded by Sahanpala , who was on the thorn in1192 A D.is known from an image inscription of that year found at Aghapur in old Bharatpur state.Perhapas he was the Badanaka ruler who came in to conflict with Chauhan ruler Prthviraj third shortly before v1239(A.D.1182) .The tradition list describes Anangapala as the successor of Sohanpala or Sahanpala.But Sohanpala’s successor seems to have been Kunwarpala who ,according to tradition was the predecessor of Ajaypala.when Muhammad Gauri attacked (1196 A.D.)Bayana .Its chief ,Kunwarpal ,evacuated his capital and shut himself in the fort of Tahangarh or Thangarh which he had surrender to after a short siege and the fort was handed over to Baha-ud-din Tughril.Anangpala may be taken to have ascended the thorne after Kunwarpala.According to Vrttavilasa of poet Jadunatha who was patronised by Gopal Singh of Karauli ,a direct descendant of Kunwarpala. The jadon ruler Anangpala was followed in succession by Prithvipala ,Rajpala and Trilokpala ,the last of whom may be placed at the end of thirteenth century A.D.
After the death of Qutb-uddin Aibak ,the Muslim hold over Bayana weakened due to the revival of the power of the dethroned rulers but Iltutmish again subdued them by storming Bayana and Tahangarh.The Jadava dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,being depcived of their strongholds and territories ,migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely that a scion of this family established himself at Karkrala or Karkaralagiri.Later on his descendants came to be known as the Jadavas or Jadons of Karauli .
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Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Sasni
District -Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh .
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan ,322001 .