Pre-History Part .III-of Ancient /Puranic Yadus /Yadavas /Yaduvansis Clan ( Modern Jadus ,Jadvas ,Jaduvansis ,Jadons ) of Lunar Race Kshatriya’s of Shurasena-desha/Brajmandal /Mathura- rajya —-
Yadu--The Yadu was the most illustrious of all the tribes of Ind ,and became the patronymic of the descendants of Boodha , progenitor of the Lunar (Indu )race.
Puranic /Ancient Yadus /Yadavas /Yaduvansis /Jadus /Jadavas /Jaduvansis of Lunar race clan of Kshatriyas are presently , the modern Jadons , Bhatis , Chudasamas , Jadejas , Sarviyas , Raijadas ,Chhonkars , Banafars , Porchas , Jadhavas etc .(1-4).
These are the most conspicuous of the Yadu races ;but there are others who still bear the original title , of which the head is the prince of the petty state of Karauli on the Chambal (1).
This portion of the Yadu stock would appear never to have strayed far beyond the ancient limits of the Suraseni , their ancestral abodes.They held the celebrated Bayana ;whence expelled , they established Karauli west ,and Subalgarh east , of the Chambal .The tract under the latter , called Yaduvati , has been wrested from the family by Sindhia.
The Yadus, or as pronounced in the dialects Jadon ,are scattered over India ,and many chiefs of consequence amongst the Mahrattas are of this tribe.
There are eight divisions ,or branches of the Yadu race as follows –—–(1-2).
1-Yadu –—Represennted by theChief of Karauli State
2-Bhatti—Represented by the Chief of Jaisalmer State.
3-Jareja—Represented by Chief of Cutch ,Bhuj .
4-Sumaitcha –Represented by Mahomedans in Scinde.
5-Mudaich ,6-Bidman ,7-Budda ,8-Soha are Unknown.
About the middle of the sixth century the Maukharis of Kannauj became independent and powerful , their rule extending over a considerable territory corresponding roughly to the present UttarPradesh which might have include the Mathura region (5).In the Old Fort at Kama(in the Bharatpur district) a stone pillar with a Sanskrit inscription of thirty-seven lines on it , which seems to belong to the 8th century ,mentions a succession of seven rulers of the Surasena family described there as the descendent’s of Shauri (Krishna) ,the last name being that of Vatsadaman.Phakka ,the first in the line is believed to have lived about the close of the sixth century and the family to have represented a branch of the Surasenas (or Jadavas )of Mathura( 6) .
The Queen Vachchlika ” ,the queen of the Surasena ruler Durgabhata built a temple of Vishnu in about the eighth century A.D.at this palace (7) ,which ,it seem to have been the object of this inscription to record”.The kings of this line may have occupied Mathura soon after the Yashavarman episode or at least towards the beginning of the 7th century (when the power of the Maukharis had declined ) and made it their capital.
The Mathura region was not included in the domains of the emperor Harsha (606-647A.D.)although it’s kings might have offered to become his allies at the very beginning of his reign in consequence of which he seems to have allowed the Mathura kingdom to continue to exist .(8) .The Harsha era also began to be used in Mathura probably from this time onwards (9).
After Harsha’s death (circa 647A.D.) his empire broke up and a period of about half a century of anarchy and darkness prevailed in northern India (10 ) which however ,hardly seems to have affected the Mathura kingdom which was probably being governed by the Shurasena kings , Ajita , Durgabhata ,and Durgadama successively (11).About this time a prince , Jinadatta ,the son of a ruler of Mathura and a Jain ,is said to have migrated to Humchcha in South India and to have founded a kingdom and the royal house of the Santars there (12).
Towards the close of the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century ,King Yashovarman of Kannauj (circa 690-740 A.D.) rose to power and became the Lord of the whole of Northern India.(13) .He seems to have conquered the kingdom of Mathura also but perhaps allowed it’s Shurasena kings ,probably Devaraj and Vatsadaman , to continue as his feudatories . The last prince of this line was perhaps Vatsadaman’s son Anyadama .According to Kalhana’s Rajataringini , the king of Kashmir temporarily conquered the kingdom of Yashovarman (including Mathura )and the same work mentions that a little later (about the close of the 8th century ) a temple was built (in Kashmir ) by the son-in-low of the then ruler of Mathura .It clearly indicates that the kings of Shauraseni line may have occupied Mathura soon after the Yashovarman episode or at least towards the beginning of the seventh century (when the power of the Maukharis of Kannauj had declined ) and made it their capital.
During the 9th century and the greater part of the 10 th the city was no more the capital of a kingdom .The region might have been held by the Jadavas of Bayana who had established themselves there under Dharmpala about the beginning of the 9th century .Probably as feudatories of the Gurjara Pratiharas .These Jadava might well have been connected with the older Shurasenas of Kama (Kaman ) and might have succeeded them as rulers of this area.This Dharmpala was the 77th in descent from Krishna according to the list of the chroniclers.He was the first who bears the name of Pala ,which has descended in the family of the Karauli Raja to the present day.The names in the two following lists are derived from the bard’s chronicles ;the frist from the book of Mukji ,the famous bard of the Khichi Chauhan ,and the second from those of the Bayana Bhat.The Jaduvansis list according to Mukji’s list as follows -Dharmapala , Singha Pala ,Jaga Pala , Nara Pala Deva , Sangrama Pala , Kuntha Pala , Bhum Pala , Sucha Pala , Ichcha Pala ,Virama Pala , Jaita Pala or Jaiyendra Pala.(14).
About the middle of the 10 th century the Gurjara Pratihara empire began to disintegrate along with other feudatories the Jadava also exploiting the situation by becoming independent . About this time another ruling family probably a branch of the Bayana house or that of the older Shurasenas appears to have established itself at Mahaban and to have ruled over Braj or at least over the whole of what is now the Mathura district .
Towards the end of 1018 A.D.Mahmud of Ghazni again invaded India with a hundred thousand horse raised in his own dominions and twenty thousands foot soldiers of fortune from several central Asian countries and fell upon Mahaban near Mathura which was then being ruled by a Chief named Kulachandra ,possibly a member of the Jadu dynasty .But he was , no doubt , the Raja of Braj ,or of the whole Mathura district. Kulachandra , in the words of Mahmud’s chronicler Utbi , “was one of the leader of the accursed sultans ,who assumed superiority over other rulers , and was inflated with pride ,and who employed his whole life in infidelity , and was confident in the strength of his dominions whoever fought with him sustained defeat and flight ,and he possesses much power , great wealth ,many brave soldiers , large elephants ,and strong forts ,which were secure from attack and capture .From Baran (modern Bulandshahar in U.P. ) ,Mahmud marched towards Mahaban and attacked Kulachandra who owned a large numbers of forts and enjoyed suzerainty over the neighbouring rulers.On hearing of his arrival , Kulchandra with his army and elephants retreated to a fort in a “deep forest (probably a literal translation of the name Mahaban ) and kept every thing ready for battle.Mahmud discovered the fort and hand -to-hand fight with swords and spears between the two armies .Hindus ,having failed to defend their position jumped into the Jamuna and tries to cross over in search of safety.Finding no way of escape , Kulachandra first killed his wife and then himself ,some 5, 000 or 50 ,000 of his men losing their lives in action and Mahmud securing a large booty together with 185 war elephants ( 15).
Mahmud marched to Mathura and then directed his steps towards the city of Mathura which though well fortified was now left undefended.Utbi calls it Maharatu-i-Hind which was reputed to be one of the most sacred places in the country and stood majestically on the other bank of the river.The sultan gave orders thal all the temples should be burnt with naphtha and fire , and levelled with the ground ( 16).
Later Muslim historians have also narrated this ruthless iconoclastic sack of the city ( 17).It is said that it was pillaged continuously for twenty days , a large number of its buildings being reduced to ashes and the idols in its temples deliberately broken into pieces ( 18) ,all this in spite of Mahmud ‘s admiration of its marble palaces and temples , unsparingly expressed in the dispatch in which he announced his success .The plunder taken was enormous ( 19).The suggestion that the city of Mathura was at that time within the kingdom of the raja of Delhi (20 )seems to ignore the existence of such a powerful prince as Kulachandra across the river at Mahaban .The independent existence of a king of the Mathura region in this period is also confirmed by the fact that a king of Mathura is said to have been one of the princely suitors for the hand of a princess which was ultimately won by Durlabharaja ,the king of Gujarat (1010-1022 A.D.) ( 21).
The reputed Arab scholar Alberuni came to India in the wake of Mahmud ‘s invasion where he stayed for several years . In his book on India (completed about 1030 A.D.)(22) he has referred to Mathura and his list (based on purans ) of the countries of the “middle realm “includes Shurasena and another list (based on the Indian astronomer Varahamihira ‘s book ) mentions both Mathura and Shurasena among the countries in the centre of the realm ( 23) .He calls Mathura “Mahura “gives it’s distance from Kannauj as being twenty -eight farsakh (about 160 km )and states that the line which passes straight from Lanka to Meru ,passes through the Jaun (Yamuna ) on which the city of Mathura is situated (24).The Harsha era appears to have been still in use in Mathura in the time of Alberuni ( 25)
After the downfall of the kingdom of Mathura and Mahaban , the district was perhaps occupied by the Jadavas of Bayana ,probably under underJaitrapala or Jaiyendra Pala ,the 11th raja in the traditional list of the line ‘who is assigned to the first half of the eleventh century and the know date of whose successor , Vijayapala ,was 1044 A.D.(26) ,The fourth (or Fifth ) in descent from Vijayapala was Ajayapala (circa 1135 -1160 A .D) whose inscription dated V .S.1207 (A.D. 1150) has been discovered on a pillar in the great mosque called the Assi-khambha (also known as Nand’s place ) in the fort of Mahaban .The building appears originally to and later converted into a mosque ( 27) .Another inscription ,that of Ajayapala’s successor Hari pala and dated 1170 A.D., has also been discovered in the same place (28). Hari pala was succeeded by Sahan pala .An image inscription of the reign of Sahan pala ,dated A.D.1192 ,has been discovered at Aghapur , in the old Bharatpur State .These records also indicate that this jaduvansi dynasty continued to rule over the Mathura region till perhaps the Muslim conquest a few decades later.
Though Mathura seems to have lost its political importance in the 12 th century it was still a holy city of no mean significance .Apart from the devout masses , the rulers of the many Rajput principalities which had sprung up in different parts of India were keenly interested in it.Several ruling families of the Daccan in the early mediaeval period claimed descent from the ancient Jadava rulers of Mathura ( 29). An inscription of 1106 A.D.from Gwalior mentions one Monartha , a Kayasth of Mathura , as being the secretary of the raja of Gwalior (30).Coins of the Gahadavals of Kannauj ,of the Tomars of Delhi and of the Chauhans of Ajmer and Delhi ,belonging to this period , have been discovered in Mathura (31) . Jaduvanshi Vinayak pala son of Ichchhapala and brother of Virhma pala (Jaduvanshi ruler of Mathura ) ,was ancestor of the Banafar clan ,Alha and Udal was also associated with this Mathura city (32). One Ramsen ,a Jadon Rajput from Mahaban ,is said to have founded Bisawar (a village in tahsil Sadabad ) (33) .Besides the Jadavas (now also known as the Jadon Rajput ) several other Rajputs clans now represented in the Mathura district might have settled there about that time (34) .The Ahirs of the Mathura are Nandavanshi and Gwalavanshi on the basis of numbers of cow’s ownerships (35) ;they seem to have settle down here before this time .The Mathura District is the place of the presumed origin of all the Ahirs of Uttar Pradesh ( 36) .The jats also appear to have been living in the district from remote times and one puran , a leading Jat of the locality , is said to have been a contemporary of Prithviraja Chauhan (who flourished in the last quarter of the 12th century (37).Some local traditions of the district name the Kalars as the original occupants of the land They are associated with ancient forts and tanks and are said to have been dispossessed by certain Rajputs clans and the Jats but it can not be said with certainly how and when this transfer of possession took place (39).The Mewatis of Gurgaon may also have held the north-western part of the district ( 40) .
About 1196 A .D Shihab-ud-din Ghori and Qutb-ud-din Aibak conquered the territory of the Jadavas of Bayana which probably included the present district of Mathura but it seems to have been lost to them after some time and to have again come under the sway of some Hindu chiefs as Iltutamish (1211 -36 A .D.) is said to have reconquered this region.Mahaban seems to have been used as a gathering place for his armies during his expeditions against Kalanjar in A.D.1234.
After his accession in 1266 A.D., Balban bruised himself in crushing the power of the Meos some of whom seem to have infiltrated into the north -western part of the Mathura from Mewat (39).From an inscription of Viravasman and Chendella ruler ,which is dated 1280 A.D.,it appears that the Mathura region was then being ruled by Gopala , a Hindu raja ,who is said to have come into conflict with him( 41)
1-History of The Rajpoot Tribes by Metclfe C.T. ,pp72-73.
2-Tod ‘s Rajasthan ,Vol .I.,pp.85-87.
3-Census Report of the North -Western Provinces ,for 1865 ,Vol.I.,pp.64,65.
4-Supplementry Glossary ,Vol.I.,p.129.
5-Tripathi ,R.S. : History of Kannauj ,(Delhi ,1959) ,p.55; Majumdar and Pusalker , op.cit.,p.69;Bajpai ,op.cit.,pp.118-119.
6-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol.X X, pp.54-60.
7-AS G ,XX, p.59.
8-Tripathi ,op.cit.,pp.118-119 and foot note 3.
9-Ibid .,p.124 footnote 1; Sachau ,E C .;Alberuni’s India ,(Delhi ,1964 ), Vol.II ,p.5.
10-Tripathi ,op .Cut .,p.188.
11-Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol .Xx ,p.59.
12-Ephigraphia Carnatic ,Vol .VII ,Nagar No .35 ;Vol .VIII , Tirthahalli N .p.192.Saletore ,B.A.:Mediaeval Jainism ,(Bombay ,1938 ) ,pp.89 -90.
13-Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit .,Vol.III ,p.131 ; Tripathi ,op.cit .,pp.194 ,197 ,199 ,210-211
14-Cunningham , Report of A tour in eastern Rajputana in 1882-83.pp.6-7.
15- Ibid .,; Haig ,op.cit.,p.19 ; Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit., Vol .5 ,p.14 . Kulchandra has also been identified with Kokkalladeva ,the Kalachuri ,who is supposed to have taken up a position in Mahaban in order to intercept the invader .Cf.Hodivala .;S.H.:Studies in Indo -Muslims History .Vol .I (Bombay ,1935 ), pp.146-148.
16-Elliot and Dowson,op.cit.,Vol., II ,pp.14-15, 44-46.
18-Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit.,Vol.,V.,p.14.
19-Thornton , Edward:A Gazetteer of the Territories under the East India Comp.,Vol.III,p.583, Haig ,op.cit.,p.12.
20-Ibid ., Thornton ,op.cit., Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit.,p.10.
21-Ibid ,p.74 ., Ray ,H.C.,The Dynastic History of Northern India ,Vol .,II.,1936 .Pp.945-948.
22-Sachau ,E.C.,Alberuni’s India ,preface p.XVII.
23-Ibid ., Vol.I.,pp.299-300.
26-Majumdar and Pusalker ,op.cit.,Vol.V.,p.25.
27-Growse ,op.cit.,pp.253,256 ,;Fuhrer ,op.cit.,pp.103-104; Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol.XX,pp.5-7,42-43 ,46.
28-Majumdar and Pusalker, op.cit.,p.55.
31-Archaeological Survey of India,Vol.XX,p.38.
33-Conybeare ,etc .,op.cit., p.178.
34-Ibid ,pp.72-73 ; Whiteway ,op.cit., pp.34-35; Growse ,op.,cut.,p.19; Bingley ,A.H.; Rajputs (Calcutta ,1918 ),pp.25, 74-75 ,;Crooke ,W.:The Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Qudh ,Vol.,I.,p.98;Vol.II,p.404 .,Vol.III,pp.10-11 ;Vol.IV.,p.218.
35-Prabhu Dayal Mittal :Braj ka Sanskritik Itihas, (Hindi) Delhi ,Khand .I,1966.
36-Ibid ., Vol.I,pp.50-51; Conybeare ,etc.,op.cit.,p.75.
37-Ibid .,pp.79-80 , Whiteway ,op.cit.,pp.34-35.,Browse ,op.cit., p.9; Crooke ,op.vot.,Vol.,III.,pp.25-30., Archeological Survey of India ,Vol.VII.,p.16.
38-Conybears ,etc., op.cit.,p.153.
39-Ibid .,p.159., Whiteway ,op.cit.,p.9.
40-ziauddin Barani :Tarikh-i-Firozshchi .
41-Cunnigham ,A., Archeologcal Survey of India ,Vol.,XXI, p.75 ,.Bose ,N.S.:History of the Candellas of Jejakchhkti ,p.110-111.
Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.