The Ancient Yadavas /Yaduvansis of Lunar race Kshatriyas (modern Jadon /Jadaun ) of Bayana( Santipur /Sripatha) andTribhuvangiri(Tahangarh /Timangarh /Thangarh)——-
The Jadons Kshatriyas ,of course ,claim descent from Krishna,the acknowledged Lord of Mathura after the death of Kansa.Their early history ,therefore ,consists of a number of the popular tales of Krishna derived from the Mahabharta and the Puranas.
Some historian write the word Surasenas ,which were Jadavas ,or Jadovansis,to which race belonged both Krishna and his antagonist Kansa,the king of Mathura.Anciently they are real yadavas or Yaduvansis.The Jadon clan of Rajputs ,who claim descent of Shri Krishna’s great grandson Bajranabh (Vjranabh was son of Aniruddha ).
The jadons ,who have nearly always remained in or near the ancient country of Sursena or Braj around Mathura (Muttra) ,are said to have at one time held half of Alwar and the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur ,besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra ,the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna ,and portion of Gwalior lying along the Chambal.
Origin of the name Jadon—
The origin of the name ,Jadon ,is traced by Sir Henry Elliot to Yadu or Yadav,but it would perhaps be more correct to say that Jadon ,Jadu ,Jadava ,and Yadava are etymologically the same,the former being corruptions of the last. Dr Hornle has pointed out ,Jadon might be simply a corruption of Jadava as Badon is for Badava.The word Jadava was no longer current in vernacular speech and had been superseded by the hindi Jadu (Badu).which by itself would not admit of expansion in to Jadon (Badon).
The tribe traditionally belongs to the Lunar Race and professes to trace its descent in a direct line from Krishna.Yadu or Jadu according to the same writer ,following Tod is the patronymic of all the descendants of Budha , the ancestor of Lunar Race ,of which the most conspicuous clans are now Bhatti ,Jadeja ,Banafar Shoorasaini /saini ,Chhonkar ,Chudasama.,Rayjada ,Sarvaiya ,Jadhav Tank,Porch ,Baresiri . Jaiswar ,Badiyar also; while the title of Jadon is now exclusively applied to the tribe which appears never to have strayed far from the Limits of the ancient Surasena ,and they are found in considerable number in.that neighbourhood.The large tract south of the Chambal rever ,called after them Jaduvati or Yaduvati ,is in the possession of the Gwalior Marhattas and the state of Karauli on the Chambal is now their chief independent possession .
Old History of Native place of Jadon or Jadava Race—-
The people of Jadon or Jadava race are,generally ,credited as native of Mathura and Saurashtra regions.However ,literary source of jadon race also recommended about their large settlements in Gandhar ,Kabul and Zabul regions.James Tod further intensified the debate while calling them of Indo-Scythians of Sistan and zabul.R.Khyat .of erstwhileJaisalmer state narrates that the migration of Jadon or Jadava people in large number towards Rajasthan and its adjoining regions actually started after Arab and Turk invasions over the frontier regions ,especially after their conquests of Sistan-zabul ,Kabul and Gandhar regions.in 7th-8th century.Bhattis of Jaisalmer are also offshoots of Jadava or Jadon ,who according to their family accounts once ruled over the territory of Western Punjab and Ghana, rather in their records they claim ,that.they actually founded the fort of Ghazna .Records also mention that they had established their principalities in Rajasthan even before 8th century however their popular states came into existence only after their last migration .
The name for the country and people around Mathura, given by Alexander’s historians ,is Surasena. Colonel Tod found ,in 1814 ,what he believed to be the ancient city of Surapur near Batesur (Batesvara) in Agra district ,which he supposed to have been the ancient capital of the country ,named from a prince Surasen, this name being borne by two princes in the immediate ancestry of Krishna . It would seem however that Prayag (Allahabad -Jhusi) was the cradle of their race ,whence they migrated to Mathura / Muttra .
Bayana-Sripatha—-—-Literary and epigraphic sources also support the rule of ancient Yadava /Jadava or Jadon in Mathura,Dang and Mewat regions of Rajasthan either as independent or feudatories of Partihar and Parmars(10) though in the genealogical sketch of Jadavas of Karauli ,it is mentioned that one Dharmpal of the family in 810C E had migrated from Dwarika?(Saurashtra)and conquered the land of Bayana and Mewat , the time of Dharmpal Mewat was under the possession of Paramars.But something like real history begins with Dharmpala ,the 77th in decent from Krishna according to the lists of the chroniclers .He is the frist who bears the name of Pala ,which has descended in the family of the Karauli Raja to the present day.His probable date is about 800 A.D.He and his successors are said to have resided in.Bayana.History of the next seven successors of Dharmpala ,again ,not clear .But during the time of Jitpal (Jaipal or Jai Indrapala),,father of Vijayapala ,Mewat came under the control of Nikumbh Rajputs .We cannot ascertain that before 1036 C E Vijay Pal had any claim over the region of Bayana or Mewat .From Ingnoda inscription of V S1190 it appears that until the commencement of twelfth century Partihars of Kanauj continued to exercise their political influence over Bayana and Mewat .It is possible that in the initial years of his reign over Vijaygarh or Bayana ,Vijaypal might have accepted the suzerainty of Partihars of Kanauj.
Bayana is situated about 48 Kms ,to the south -west of Bharatpur .In early times ,it was knows by various names ,which were probabley kept under different ruling dynasties.Its very old name is said to be Santipura. Inthe two inscriptions of the 11th century ,its name Sripathais given.This name was retained up to the 15th century ,as is clear from by the name of Vijaymandirgarh,after its ruler Maharaja Vijaypala who constructed the fort in the 11th century A D .It was famous by name of Bayana in the 12th century,as known from the Muslim sources. During the muslim period ,Sultankot was the Mohammedan name of new city of Bayana,and the place was afterwards known by the double name Bayana Sultankota .In the inscriptions of 15th ,16th and 17th centuries ,its name is mentioned as Brahmavada.
Tradition relates that a Jadu dynasty formely Sursenas ruled in Bayana ,the modern Bayana ,in the old Bharatpur State,Rajputana ,the ancient name of which was Sripatha.The traditional list of kings of this dynasty ,as given by the bards ,is partly verified by the epigraphic records.These records prove that.the kingdom of this dynasty comprised the old Bharatpur State and the Mathura District.The king Jaitapala or Jayendrapala of the traditional list may be placed in the first half of the 11th century.
Why most Jadon names have the affix “Pal” instead of “Singh”——
It will be noticed that most Jadon names have the affix “Pal” instead of “Singh” .It has been preferred because” Singh ” means “Lion” which ,with all its noble qualities is no respector of Cow, whereas “Pal” signifies “the protector of Cows ” and is thought a more befitting designation for the children of Sri Krishna .Another derivation of the word “Pal” will be found in Volume II ,page 286 ,of Tod,who consider that it signifies pastoral or nomadic.
The real history of affix “Pal”in the Jadavas Jadus /Jadons name begins with Dharmpala , the 77th in descent from Shri Krishna in Jadu clan according to the chroniclers .He is the first who bears the name of “Pala” ,which has descended in the Jadon clan of the Karauli Raja .
Surasena Country /Janpada —
In the ancient times the whole of the country lying between the Arabali.hills of Alwar and the river Jumna was divided between Matsya on the west and Surasena on the east border.Kaman ,Mathura ,and Bayana were all in.Surasena Janpada.The Surasenas were Jadavas ,or Jadovanshi to which race belonged both Krishna and antagonist Kansa ,the king of Mathura.
The Surasenas had a sepatate dialect ,known in ancient times as the Suraseni ,just as their descendants ,the present people of Braj ,have their own diatect of Braj Bhasha ,At the time of Alexander’s invasion the Surasenas worshipped a God whom the Greeks identified with Herakles.Their chief towns were Methora and Kleisoboras,or Mathura and Krishnapura ,between which flowed the river Jomanes or Jumna .
Maharaja Bijaipal (Vijaypala )ruler of Bayana—
Jayendrapala’s successor was Vijaypala who may be identified with the famous Surasena ruler Vijayadhiraja of the Bayana incription ,dated 1044A.D.He was a powerful ruler ,and he extended his empire.He had 18 sons and among them ,those who were ambtious ,carved out their separate principalities.The eleventh in descent from Dharmpala is Vijaypala,to.whom the building of the fortress of Vijyamandargarh is unanimously attributed.An inscription bearing his name still exists on.one of the Hindu pillers of the Masjid in the Bahari -Bhitari -Mohalla in the town of Bayana .It gives the date of Sambat 1100,or A D .1043.Most of the historians begin the account of erstwhile Karauli state of Rajasthan with the accession of Vijaypala of Jadon race at Vijaygarh or Bayana .Chroniclers do not shed light on his early career however ,it seem that he came from Mathura to the hill Maani ,where in Sambat 1052 (A.D. 995) and he repaired the fort of Bijayagarh ,under the protecting shadow of which the well -known town of Bayana (Biana) now in Bharatpur territory sprung up. He ,in.the last years of his reign had suffered defeat from the forces of Ghaznavids and thereafter his successors shifted to the new fort of Timangarh.But there ,too ,they could HB not sit in peace and Ghurids forced them to move elsewhere.Finally in the beginning of fourteenth century they could find their home in the place at Karauli .The couplet (Chhapaya),part of the account entitled as “Jadon Vanshiyonka Itihas;mentions that the king Vijaypal in 1036 C E became independent and assumed the designation of “Tigin;He used the title of “Tigin”in the sense of Chhatrapati21.Generally this title of “Tigin”for chiefs and rulers remained popular in the frontier regions and Khurasan.This development clearly suggests about the different kind of political background Vijaypala had passessed.He became independent in the sixth year of the reign of Ma,sud.Bayana inscription of V S 1100further confirmed his position as independent ruler.22In the fifth year of his reign Ma’sud had demanded money from Mahmudiyans and they in protest left his kingdom.According chroniclers Vijaypal after his accession faced the invasion of ane Ali(Abu’Ali, Kotwal of Ghazna) but succeeded in repulsing him.It appears that at first Abu’Ali might have tried to persuade Bijji Rai or Vijaypal to accompany him back to Ghana or return the money which he had received from Muhammad.But after finding that his efforts are not bringing desirable results he decided to attack Bayana.However ,Vijaypal remained successful in defending his citadel.The enmity aroused between Sultan and his old nobie did not stopped there.
During the reign of Mausud ,son and successor of Ma’Sud , the Kotwal of Kandhar (Ghazna), Abu Bakr in 1046 C E invaded the principality of Vijaygarh and couquered it.Vijaypal was killed in the battle and women of Royal House hold performed JAUHAR.Perhaps ,Abu Bakr was son and successor of Abu’Ali.Thereafter the family of raja Vijaypal of Bayana moved to Tahangarh or Timangarh.
History of Kanawar Battle between Raja Vijaypal.and Abubakr Shah Kandahari ——
In Bayana there was a” Teli”(oilman)by name Lal Khan,who had a beautifull daughter .This girl Raja Vijaypal was anxious to introduce into his Zanana,but her father objected and asked for six month to think about the matter .At the same period a traitorous Rajputs joined the invading Musalmans of Ghazni under Abubakr Shah Kandahari to whom the Teli as an oppressed .Musalman afterwards appealed for justice ,and the two induced Abubakr to attack Bayana.The invading host reached “Kanawar “,12 Kos from Bayana ,where they were met by Vijaypal ,who left his son ,Gajpal ,in command at the fort ,with orders to make demonstrations of joy ,to.fire salutes ,feast and enrich Brahmans ,directly he saw that the Rajput arms were victorious.But if he.saw that the Afghan banners advanced towards the fort ,he was at once to blow up the Zanana and so save the women from outrage ,and then resist to the last.
Raja Vijaypal ,who weat forth with guns of all kinds and a fine force ,repulsed the Afghans ,took their standards ,and killed many Muhammadans whose tombs covered the plain and remain to this day.Some of the camp-followers ,got possession of the captured standards and rushed off with them towards the fort,which Gaj Pal seeing he at once carried out his instructions and blew up the Zanana ,and all.the women who were not killed put themselves to death..The standard -holders approached the fort ,and then the prince discovered his.mistake and bitterly bemoaned his haste.Shortly after Vijaypal arrived ,and it occurred to him on discovering the calamity to look at a charan given him.by a holy man which he carried on his right arm ,and which he had been told to refer to before attempting any great undertaking .The charan indicated that very day was to be the last of his life ,and overwhelmed by.evil destiny he repaired to a temple of Siva ,out off.his head and presented it to.the deity.At his funeral rites ,in spite of the previous general destruction ,360 women became Sati.On hearing of this the Musalmans renewed their attack ,and after a desperate resistance on the part of its defenders.succeeded in taking the fort .A local chronological rhyme states that this occurred on Monday,Phagan Budi Tij ,Sambat 1103 (A.D.1053),and thus ended the rule of the Jadons at Bayana after 51 years of sovereignty.
Vijaypal had 18 sons ,amongst them Chhatra Pal ,who was killed near Ghazni during an invasion of Kabul.
Gajpal ,who built Gajgarh and Madan Pal ,who founded Mandrel and rebuilt the fort which however had been originally raised by a jadon.
In the meanwhile ,according to his chroniclers Vijaypal after the accession followed a vigorous policy towards his neighboring powers and fought several battles with Chalukyass of Gujrat,Guhilots of Mewar ,Tanwars of Delhi,Johiyas of Jangaldesh ,Parihars of Mandor ,Chauhans of Ajmer ,along with powers of Panchal and Marudesh.Chroniclers also admit that his victory over Chalukyas proved disastrous for him because it alarmed the Vhaznavids.In order to eliminate the possibilities of his growing power they attacked Vijaygarh and killed him.It is interesting to note that.these chroniclers who described the.battles which he fought in his neighborhood in India also first provide the account of his military engagement taken place in Afghanistan,Turkistan ,Persia and Central Asia.R.However ,modern writers select his activities attempted only in India.The details of the early career of his life quite prove that Vijaypala of Bayana served the court of Mahmud and afterwards his son Ma’Sud.In contemporary records Raja Vijaypala is called Paramabhattaraka which established his political preeminence in this line .He may have lived till Sambat 1093
Tahanpala /Timanpala /Tawanpala—-
Vijayapala’s successor was Tahanpala o Tribhuvanpala, eldest son of Vijaypala ,who built the fort of Tahangarh , 22Kms south of Bayana.The territory round it ,in course of time ,became famous after the name of fort.It was also famous by the name of Tribhuvanagiri.When Mohammedans occupied it,it assumed the name of Islamabad .
Timanpala was a powerful king of this Jadu dynasty.In the course of a long reign of 66 years he did much to increase the power of his kingdom by constructing the fort of Tawangarh (the Thankar of persian histories), 22kms from Bayana ,and by making fresh conquests.He extended his kingdom by bringing within it the major parts of Dang,Alwar ,Bharatpur ,Dholpur ,Gungon ,Mathura ,Agra and Gwalior .His political sovereignty over the wide expanse of territory is further established by his title of “Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraj Parameswar .In sambat 1147 (A.D.1090) Timanpal died .
The two succeeding ruler Haripala and Dharmpala,who followed Tahangarh ,could not maintain their hold over their patrimony ,partly due to the conflicts within the family and partly owing to the growing power of their feudatories.They also failed in opposing Muizzuddin Ghauri ,who took possession of Bayana and Tahangarh.(or Thankar)in 1196 A.D.
Tahanapala was followed in succession by Dharmapala ,Kunwarapala ,and Ajayapala .Cunningham suggests that there is a chronological error in placing Kunwarpala before Ajayapala. But ,this view does not seem to be correct.Both Kunwarpala ,and Ajayapala were ruling over two different principalities simultaneously .Kunwarala was king of Tribhuvanagiri in 1157 A.D.when Jinadstta Suri visited that place in 1112 -54 A.D of the Kharataragaccha sect .It is known from the Mahaban Prasasti of V.1208 or A.D.1151 found near Mathura that Kunwarpala’s son , Ajayapala ,who is given the title of Maharajadhiraj might have been the ambitious Bhadanaka ruler described as deprived of his bha or “lustre” by the Chahamanas ruler Vigrahraja IV of Ajmer.But this defeat was not very serious R for we find the Bhadanakas fighting once again against the Chahamanas . Ajaypala ‘s interest in Jainism can be interred from the name Ajayarajavihara given to a monastery of Tribhuvangiri ,wherebJain scholars like Vinayacandra stayed and composed their works .
The tradition mentions Haripala as son and successor of Ajayapala.An inscription of Haripala ,dated A.D.1170 has been found at Mahavan.Haripala was succeeded by Sahanpala , who was on the thorn in1192 A D.is known from an image inscription of that year found at Aghapur in old Bharatpur state.Perhapas he was the Badanaka ruler who came in to conflict with Chauhan ruler Prthviraj III shortly before v1239(A.D.1182) .The next Seuna ruler was probably Kunwarpala III.When Muhammad Ghori captured Bayana ,he took refuge in the fort of Tahangarh .But the invader captured this too and handed it over to one of his commander Bahauddin Turghil .This is corroborated by the Jinadattacarita of Laksmana ,who had to leave the fort and roam about till he reached Bilrampur .The Vrttavilasa does not mentine him .Instead ,it gives the name of Anangapala who might have been the younger brother of Kunwarpala II., The tradition list describes Anangapala as the successor of Sohanpala or Sahanpala.But Sohanpala’s successor seems to have been Kunwarpala who ,according to tradition was the predecessor of Ajaypala.when Muhammad Ghori attacked (1196 A.D.)Bayana .Its chief ,Kunwarpal ,evacuated his capital and shut himself in the fort of Tahangarh or Thangarh which he had surrender to after a short siege and the fort was handed over to Baha-ud-din Tughril.Anangpala may be taken to have ascended the thorne after Kunwarpala.According to Vrttavilasa of poet Jadunatha who was patronised by Gopal Singh of Karauli ,a.direct descendant of Kunwarpala. The jadon ruler Anangpala was followed in succession by Prithvipala ,Rajpala and Trilokpala ,the last of whom may be placed at the end of thirteenth century A.D.
After the death of Qutb-uddin Aibak ,the Muslim hold over Bayana weakened due to the revival of the power of the dethroned rulers but Iltutmish again subdued them by storming Bayana and Tahangarh.The Jadava dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,being depcived of their strongholds and territories ,migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely that a scion of this family established himself at Karkrala or Karkaralagiri.Later on his descendants came to be known as the Jadavas Jadus or Jadons of Karauli .
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Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh ,204216.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.