The antiquity and origin of the Jadons (puranic Yadavas in sanskrit ) Lunar race Kshatriyas–

The antiquity and Origin of the Jadons (the Lunar Race Kshatriya ) —-

Yadu ,the Progenitor of the Jadon clans
Panini ( C.500B.C ) in this Ashtadhyayi mention some of the Yadu clans and their polity.The unable among them are the Vrsni-Andhkas (VI.2.34.) who are referred in the connection with the Rajanya leaders .The Kasika defines Rajanya as the member of such families in a Kshatriya tribe as were entitled to be consecrated to the rulership .
Another conspicuous feature of their polity in the days of Panini was their party system (IV.2.34) .
Moreover the Dasarhas and Satvatas figure in the Panini’s ganapati (V.3.117) as was like clans -(ayudhajivin sanghas ) .
The earliest reference to Bhakti (devotion ) to Vasudeva occurs also in the Astadhyayi (IV.3.98 ) and as such is important .Yaska 1(dated between C.800B.C.and 500 B.C.) incidently refers to Akrura ,a well known Jadava hero in connection with the episode of the Syamantaka gem.
The tribe of the Satvatas is referred to in the literature of the Brahmanas .The Aitareya Br (viii.14.3) mentions them as people residing in the Southern directions and being ruled by Bhoja -kingh , while their defeat and carrying away of their horse of Asvamedha (horse-sacrifice ) by Bharta is alluded to in the Satapatha Br ( XIII.5.4.21 ) .
The Kausitaki Upanishad also known as the Kausitaki -Brahmana -Upanishad (iv.-1) mentions the Satvats with Matsyas 2.The above references taken together through light on the region of the Satvats during period of the Brahmanas .
The Rgveda contains frequent references to a tribe styled Yadu (Jadu ) .The derivative fromYadu when specified is given Jadava .The Yadus and Turvasas are generally mentioned together .At one place the Yadus are referred to together with the Turvasas , Anus , Druhyus and Purus .
The passages in the Rgveda refer to Yadus hostility with Divodasa , one of the leading princes of Rgvedic India and probably the grandfather of Sudas of the Trtsu-Bharatas . The Yadu and Turvasa are also found associated with the Druhyas , Anus and the Purus .It therefore seems improbable that the Yadus remained aloof from the in which the other four tribes allied to them were involved.
The allusion of Yadu , hostility with Divodasa probably grandfather of Sudas , corroborates the views in favour of Yadus , particularly in the Dasarajna-Yuddha .
Another political adventure of the Yadus ,alluded to in the Rgveda , is their crossing of the flooded Sarayu river and slaying of the two princces named Arna and Citraratha .
The Epical and the Puranic traditions unanimously indicate an indigenous origin of the Yadus .Their origion is traced to Yadu , son of Yayati (who stands fourth from Ella daughter of Manu Vaiuasuata and wife of Buddha , son of Chandrama or Som ,the moon-god .). and thus Jadon dynasties claim to have descended from the Lunar stocks .The ancestors of Yadu are said to have reigned at Pratisthana in north India .The tradition history is copious while dealing with Yayati , the famous samrat who married with Devayani , the daughter of Usanas Sukra .Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati and Devayani .He , the account runs ,was denied to the right of primogeniture due to his disobedience .But we know from the same authority the Yadu , like his other cursed brothers got a share in the patrimony and was installed on a frontier kingdom . The purans specifically mention the region inherited by Yadu .The collated text show that Yadu ‘s kingdom lay to the south -western direction of Pratisthana (Prayaga -Jhunsi ) which was the capital of his father Yayati .It seems that his kingdom lay in the region which is watered by the Chambal (Carmanvati ) and the Betwa (Vetravati ) .
The Epic expressly mentions that Yadu’s descendants were the Yaduvansis or Jadavas ,in all the Purans and Epic.Yadu ,the son of Yayati and Devayani is said to be the progenitor of the Jadavas or Jaduvansis ,among whom flourished Ugrasena ,Kamsa ,Shurasena , Vasudeva & Devki and their sons like Lord Krishna and Balrama .

Lord Krishna Theory—-

It can not be denied that certain customs censured in the Dharamshastras and unscrupulous methods employed and advised by the Yadu leader Krishna Vasudeva in the matter of political contents ,certainly lowered the prestige of the Vrasni-Andhakas .For example the yaduvansis followed the customs of marrying with daughters of maternal uncles (1).and for this Vasudeva is censured in latter dharamsahatras .
The undisputed leader of the Yadavas during the period of the Mahabharat -War was Krishna Vasudeva who was reared among cowherds and not among princes .This fact of Krishna ‘s (2 )non-being a prince was stressed upon by his enemies.Sishupala and Diryodhana in the charges against Shri Krishna repeatedly speakes of him as a cowherd.
But in view of the limited period of Krishna ‘s stay among the Gopas or Gwalas and the peculiar circumstances that led Vasudeva to put his new born son under the care of Nanda and contrasting it with his subsequent and permanent career among the yaduvansis as well as his attainment of eminent position among them , it seems that the opponents of Krishna knowingly and purposefully took advantage of his early and temporary association with the Gopas and made much do about it.

Thus the puranic traditions , corroborated by references in the Yadu literature ,clearly indicate that the (Yadus or Yaduvansis or Yadavas ) Yaduvansis represent a tribe of hoary antiquity .Yadu ,the progenitor of the yadava tribe , belonged to the ancient Aila or Ella stock.In course of the time the yaduvansis multiplied in to several clans such as the Haihayas , the Vidarbhas ,the Satvatas , the Andhakas ,the Kukuras and the Vrasnis .In the early times, according to the Epical and Puranic traditions ,they seem to have settled in Madhya Desha and subsequently spread over the Narmada valley and Vidarva in the south ,the Mathura region in the north and Saurashtra in the West.Pargiter holds that before the Aila expansion started in the northwest ,west and south ,Yayati’s kingdom lay in the Madhya Desha.
The literalists believe that most of the Kshatriyas communities descent from Surya ,Chandra , or Agni.The Surya descendants claim descent from the Sun Dynasty (Suryavanshi ) .Rama also belonged to this dynasty , and the Suryavanshis who trace this lineage via Rama ‘s son ,Luv and Kush trace their back to him.The Chandra descendants claim descent from the Lunar Dynasty (Chandravansh) .Lord Krishna descendants also was born in this dynasty . Chandravanshi Kshatriyas consider him as an ancestor .This is clearly mentioned in the Rig Veda and Puranas as well as in Great epics ,the Ramayana ,the Mahabharta ,and the Raghuvamsa .

Ref-1 Papat matulasambandhat duspraja te bhavisyati .Mat.33.8
It seems that certain customs prevalent among the yadavas were so much abhorrent to the advocate of pure Brahmanical culture that the Ramayana calls the descendants of yadu as Yatudhana Raksases and states also that his lineage will not be of Lunar stock and shall be considered excluded from any royal genealogy.(vide Uttarakanda 59th chapter.15.16.and 30).
Ref 2.MBHII.41.17;42.3.4.

Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,U.P
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan ,322001.

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