The brief history of Jadu Bhatis of Jaisalmer the Lunar Race Rajput of Yadu Dynasty–—
Jadu Bhatis according to the Khyat writers belong to the Lunar Line of Rajputs , claim descent from Puranic Yadava dynasty of remote period .It having Bhati , the fifth in line gave the name of Bhati to his house (1 ).They claim direct descent from the driven Krishna .The tribes takes it’s name from Bhati , who was it’s leader in very remote ages , when settled in the Punjab ;whence it appears to have been driven by conquerors from.Ghazni , and to have gone to the oasis of the Great Indian Desert , which it has ever since inhabited .
Deoraj , born in 836 A.D ,was the first to take the title of Rawal , and he founded the city of Deorawal..One of his descendants , the Rawal Jaisal , founded the city of Jaisalmer , and built a strong fort there , about the year 1156 A.D.More than a century later , when Mulraj II , was Rawal , Jaisalmer was captured and sacked by the Muhammadan troops of the Emperor Ala-ud-din in 1294 A.D., after a siege that had lasted eight years ;and this was the occasion of one of the great Sakas so famous in Rajput history –When Mulraj and his warriors , having slain all their women and children ,cased themselves in armour , put on the saffron robe , bound the mor or nuptial crown on their heads , and then sword in hand sallied forth to die amid the slaughtered heaps of the foe.Again a similar disaster befell the city in 1306 A.D., not long after it had been repaired by the Rawal Dudu (2).
After Alauddin Khilji ‘s invasion Jaisalmer remained in the hands of Truks for the next two years.It was Maharawal Ghadsi (1316-1361 ) to whom it was restored by Nasiruddin Khan (3 ).With the aid of his own kindred and vassals he restored and marshalled efficient force for the state.After his death the throne passed to Duda , Kehar ,Lakshman ,Vairsi ,Chachak , etc .Most of them waged wars against the neighbouring clans of the north and north-west and the rulers of Multan and Amarjit .They were also involved in maintaining local conflicts and conducting plundering expeditions into neighbouring regions .For instance , Maharawal Vairsi ( 1396-1448 ) proved helpful towards Rao Jodha in recovering his patrimony from Marwar (4) .His successor Chachak II ( 1448-62 ) lost his life in his engagement against Langah chief of Multan (5) .His son Devidas ( 1462-1497 ) made surprise attack on Bika and became a terror for Chahils , Mohils and Johiyas (6).During Jait Singh II period (1497-1529) Rao of Bikaner became aggressive and was able to inflict a defeat .Plundered the state and captured the capital extensively .The Rao , however , treated Jait Singh II.with chivalrous generocity , and restored the vanquished foe to his kingdom (7 ).
These rulers were not engaged themselves in extending the limits of their state and attended their campaigns their foes but they also devoted their attention to improving the general condition of the state.They provided beautiful temples and lakes to beautify the site of the town of Jaisalmer.The famous temple of Lakshminath and that of Sun-god of Jaisalmer bear witness to the religious inclination and munificence of Rao Lakshmana and Rao Vairsi .Similarly , the construction of the dams of Jaisalmer , Ghadsisor and Jait bundh by Jaisaldev Ghadsi and Jaitsi respectively , immensely benefited their public .These Raos by virtue of their courage and ability saved the kingdom from the aggression of their external enemies and made it a distinct state ( 8 ).The history of house of Jaisalmer becomes more definite from the time of Maharawal Lunkaran ( 1528-1550 ) .He is credited with having died a hero death in a conflict against Amir Ali Khan of Kandhar in 1550 .As a lover of Rajput race he celebrated a Vedic sacrifice for the purification of the Bhatis who were forced to embrace Islam .His son Maldev Bhati ( 1550-1561 ) had to suffer a defeat at the lands of Maldev ( 9) .
Har Raj’s immediate sucessors Bhim Singh ( 1577-1613 ) , Kalyands ( 1613-1627 ) and Manohardas ( 1627-1650 ) either waged wars with the neighbouring chiefs or played important part in assisting Mughal in Bengal ,Orissa and Kabul (10 ) .
Ramchandra the adopted son of Manohardas being ease-loving and cruel , proved unfit for the office .Soon he was dethroned ( 1650 ) and the dignity fell toSabal Singh ( 1650-1659 ) , the third in descend from Maldeo of Jodhapur .He had a distinguished post in Peshawar , while working there under Mirza Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur .There he won fame by saving the Royal treasure from being captured by the Afghan mountaineers .Later on he rose to prominence , owing to the patronage of Shah Jahan ( 11 ) .In other words we can say finally , in the resign of the Rawal Sabal Singh , the brave Bhattis were compelled to become feudtories of the Emperor Shah Jahan .Outlying provinces were subsequently wrested from them by neighbouring States of Jodhpur and Bikaner .
The next Rao was Amer Singh ( 1659-1701 ) , the second son of Sabal Singh .Throughout his reign ,he was chiefly engaged in waging wars against the Rathors , the Afghans , Bilochis and Chhanna Rajputs .He over-powered them and forced them to conclude peace ,after immence losses in land and money .He died in 1701 ,leaving the state extended from Sutlaj in the north to Indus in the west ( 12) .
The history of Jaisalmer of the period under reviews after the death of Amar , is but a sad record of anatchy and crime .During the weak rule of Jaswant Singh (1701-1707 ) , Budh Singh ( 1707-1721 ) , Tej Singh ( 1721-1722 ) , Sawai Singh ( 1722 ) and Akhe Singh ( 1722-1761 ) Pungal , Khadal , Barmer , Derawar ,Phalodi and various other villages and towns wrested from this state by the Rathors .Daud Khan an Afghan chieftain took the territory bording the Sutlaj .The border feuds led to blood-shed between Jaisalmer and Bikaner .Many of the Raos of this inglorious and troubled period met their sad end .As for example , Budh Singh was poisoned by a salve girl and Tej Singh and Sawai Singh were victims of the conspiracy of their own kinsmen .Thus the state of Jaisalmerv , where confusion and anarchy reigned supreme , became a mere puppet in the hands of the company in the early 19th century ( 13) .Till at the length in 1818 , under the rule of the Rawal Mulraj ,the State came came under the protection and control of the British Power , and has enjoyed the blessings of peace.On the death of the Rawal Ranjit Singh , his counter brother , the late Maharawal Bairi Sal , succeeded to the Gadi in 1864;and he was succeeded in 1891 by the present Maharawal .
The area of Jaisalamer is 16 ,447 square miles.In eztent it may be compare with Switzerland or Holland ;but is latter than either .His High news maintain a military force of 140 cavalry ,353 infantry , and 25 guns ;and is en titled to a salute of 15 guns (2) .
1- Tod , Annals ,Vol.II,pp.1176 ,1183 ,1199-1200 .
2-Golden book of India , a Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes ,Chiefs by Roper Lethbridge ,p.204.
3- Nensi’s Khyat , Vol .II,pp.295 ,482 ; Tod Annals , Vol.II,p.1216.
4- Vairsi Inscription , V.S. 1493 ,1497 .
5- Chachak Inscription ,V.S .1518 .
6- Jaisalmer Khyat .
7- Gahlot , Rajputana-ka-Itihas , 668.
8- BhattiKavya ,vv 87-286 ; Tod , Annals , pp.1216-24 ; Acomprehensive history of India ,Vol .V, the chapter Xon Rajasthan , pp.819-20 .
9- Jaisalmer Khyat .
10- Nensi Khyat ,Vol.III,pp.345-346 ; Vir-Vinod , Vol .IV, p.1763.
11- Tod ,Annals ,pp.1225-26.
12- Ibid , pp.1226-1227 .
13- Gahlot ,Rajputana-ka-Itihas , pp.678-681 .
Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota , near Sasni
District -Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof of Agric .Soil Sci.
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt .College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan , 322001