The Jadavas /Jadus /Jadons rulers of Karauli(anciently Karkarala /Karkaralgiri/ Bhadrawati / Kalyanpuri—–
This town said to have been founded in 1348 A.D.by Raja ArjunPal of jadu dynasty.It was originally called Kalyanpuri after the temple of Kalyanaji built about the same time.Anciently Karauli is known as Karkarala /Karkaralagiri.This town was also known by the name Bhadrawati ,after the river ,which flows close by.The worship of Sri Krishna ,in various forms ,is naturally the prevalent religion of Karauli.,the aristocracy of which believe themselves to be descended from the deity .Accordingly we find 300 temples of Vishnu in the form of Shri Krishna throughout the State ,and only 20 or thereabout to Siva and eight to Devi.The red figures of Balaji or Hanuman are common enough at the corners of streets or under trees ,and the other deities are not altogether neglected.
The ruler of Karauli also belonged to the Jadavas clan of Kshatriyas.Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs,who claim descent from Shri Krishna ‘s great grand son Vajranabh who settled in Mathura from Dwarika .This Jadon dynasty of Karauli began with Maharaja Vijay Pala , a descendant of Shri Krishna (88th in descent from Shri Krishna) . Maharaja Vijaypal of Vjymandirgarh (Bayana) who migrated from Mathura was known as the Founder of Karauli Jadon Family.The jadon ,who have nearly always remained in or near the countra of Surasena or Braj round Mathura (Muttra ),are said to have at one time half of Alwar ,and the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur ,besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra ,the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna ,and portions of Gwalior lying along the Chambal. He migrated from Mathura in sambat 1052 (995 A. D.) and settled in the Mani Hillly region of eastern Rajasthan where he laid the foundation of the fort and the capital of Vijayamandirgarh in 1040 A.D.This fort was later on known as Bayana .It is quite possible that Vijaypala belonged to the Surasena dynasty of Mathura.He was a famous powerful ruler and he extended his empire.He had eighteen sons and among them ,those who were ambtious ,carved out their separate principalities.
Maharaja Vijaypala of Jadon Race( Sambat 1096-1150)——
He founded the fort of Vijaygarh or Bayana (anciently called Santipur or Sripatha)had participated in the battles fought in the regions of Turan ,Iran.,aRum,Avar and Turkistan.He defeated several Tigions and Amirs and raised the high Flag of “Hindwan”in foreign countries .He suppressed the rebellions and conquered the land of Kabul ,Kandhar ,Bangas and Khurasan.It is difficult to believe that a king from place like Bayana or Vijaygarh had conquered all such described lands and powers;however, in all probabilities he seems to have participated in all these battles on behalf of a powerful king.Vijaypal was contemporary of both Mahmud and his son.Ma‘Sud.The details of the battles narrated in the Rajasthan accounts clearly suggest the most of these events had taken place during the reign of Sultan Mahmud.Fifty-one (51) years later the rule of Vijaypal was brought to an end by the Musalmans of Ghazni under the leadership of Abu Bakr Shah Kandahari.Maharaja Vijaypal died in 1046 A.D.
Maharaja Tahanpala( Sambat 1150 -1216)—-
He was the eldest son of Vijaypal ,after his fathers death remained for 12 years in concealment away from Bayana ;but in Sambat 1115,(A.D.1058) he came here and abode in the house of his faithful foster-mother ,supporting himself partly by hunting .One day he pursud a wild boar to a cave in which the beast took refuge.On the Tahanpal’s approach an old “bairagi Medhki Das”emerged.from a cave and asked why he was hunting his boar.?Tahanpal apologized and related his history to the hermit;who interested and pleased by his manner bestowed on him the philosopher’s stone and directed him to establish himself on the spot ,where accordingly the fort of Tahangarh and its fine tank were built.
Tahanpala was a powerful king of this Jadu dynasty .In the course of a long reign of Sixty -Six years he did much increase the power of.his.kingdom by constructing the fort of Tahangarh./Timangarh (the Thankar of persian histories) 22Kms from Bayana and by making fresh conquests.Tahanpal became possessor of thez” Dang”,or high irregular ground above the Chambal ,,comprising the country round the forts of Utgarh and Mandrel, and reaching as far as Dholpur ,besides the district in which the present towns of Karauli and Machilpur to the north -east of Karauli are situated.After some time he also extended his kingdom by bringing within it the major part of Dang ,Alwar ,Bharatpur.,Dholpur ,Gungaon ,Mathura ,Agra and Gwalior .His political sovereignty over the wide expanse of territory is further established by his title “Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraj Parameswara.
In Sambat 1147(A.D. 1090) Tahanpal died .
He was succeeded by his son Dharmpala.
Dharampala ‘s bastard brother ,Har Pala(Tahanpal’s illegitimate son by a Gujar women ) was a man of great courage and address.Harpal ,retained his power and possession of Tahangarh .So Dharmpal ,was ousted from Tahangarh by his illegitimate half -brother ,Har Pal.Dharmpal went and established himself at Dholdera on the present site of Dholpur and there built a fort in 1120 A.D.probably.Har Pal supplying him with funds.When Dharmpal’s legitimate son and heir ,Kunwar Pal ,grew up,he built a fort in Sambat 1153 at Golari ,near Jhiri on the Chambal ,traces of which are still visible.
Kunwarpala cherished the desire of recovering Tahangarh ,and with that object he ingratiated himself with his uncle the usurper Har Pal, whom on the first opportunity he murdered after which event all Har Pal’s adherents joined him.Dharmpala was sent for Tahangarh from Dholdera ,and Kunwarpala having thus restored his father to his rights returned to his fort at Golari called Kawargarh.
The Musalman governor of Bayana had been on friendly terms with Har Pal ,and when he.heard of his friends murder he marched with all his force upon Tahangarh which he took.Dharmpal having evacuated it retreated to Kuwargarh ,which was soon invested.Dharmpal ,after performing prodigies of valour was killed,and the whole of the Jadon territory fell into the hands of Musalmans.
Maharaja Kunwar pala ——
The succeeding ruler Kunwarpala ,who followed Dharmapala ,could not maintain their hold over their patrimony ,partly due to the conflicts within the family and partly due to growing power of their feudatories.He also failed in opposing Muhammad Ghori ,who took possession of Bayana and Tahangarh in 1196A.D.From 1196 to 1327 A.D.the chronology of this line is uncertain .It seems that this period was marked by disorder and that the fortunes of the dynasty had declined for time ( Chronology of India ,170).According to the genealogy given by the Vrattvilasa of poet Jadunatha , Kunwarpala was followed in due order by Ajayapala , Haripala , Sahanpala , Anangapala ,Prthvipala , Rajapala ,Trilokapala ,Bapaladeva Asaladeva , Sahasadeva, Ghughaldeva ,Arjunadeva , Vikramaditya ,Vakhatavilasa(?), Abhayachanda , Prthviraja , Rudrapratap ,Chandrasena ,Gopaladas and many others.
Maharaja Arjunpala , Founder of Kalyanpuri ( laterally called Karauli ) and his Successors —–
Maharaja Arjunpala (1327-1361 A .D.) ——
He was son of Gokuladeva (some historians say that Arjun pala was the son of Anangapala brother of Kunwar pala) was one of the greatest king of this Jadu dynasty.By defeating Miyan Makkhan of Mandrayal ,who was unpopular in the region ,he again got a foot hold in his home territory.He further established his authority over his kingdom by suppressing the Minas and Panwar Rajputs.He is also credited with having founded the town of Kalyanpuri in 1348A.D laterally known as Karauli and making it beautifully with mansions ,lakes ,gardens ,and temples . He built the Thakur Kalyanaji on the site of Karauli ,a name which is said to be a corruption of Kalyanaji. and he so built Anjani Mata temple.
Arjun Pala’s successors —-
Prithvi pala ,Udaipala,Pratap Rudra And Chandrasen , were more or less insignificant.They became involved in family feuds and this made them too weak to face the onslaught of their enemies.
Prithvi pala was deprived of Tahangarh fort by the Afghans. Though he repulsed the attack of the ruler of Gwalior Raja Man Singh Tanwar..He failed to suppress the Minas who had grown formidable.
Maharaja Chandrapala (Chandrasen)–
Maharaja Chandrapala (1449A.D) who won great fame as an ascetic , and according to the chroniclers ,by his prayers , and by sending his grandson Gopal das with an expedition of the Emperor Akbar, contributed greatly to the success of the Emperor ‘s arms in the Dakhan(Daulatabad). About a hundred years later Mahmud l of Malwa is said to have conquered the country.Chandrasen was deprived of his kingdom by Mahmud Khilji of Malwa in 1454 and was forced to live a retired life of a devotee at Untgarh . Victrious Sultan to have entrusted the Government to hi son , Fidwi Khan and back to his capital.It seems that raja Chandrasen and his successors retained their authority over a narrow strip of land around the place of their refuge till one of his successor ,Gopal das got back a portion of his territory during Akbar’s time .In the reign of Akbar (1556-1605A.D)the State became Incorporated in the Delhi empire ,and Gopal Das , probably the most famous of the Chief of Karauli ,appears to have been in considerable favour with emperor.He was mentioned as a commander of 2000 .
Raja Gopaldas(1449-1589 A.D)—
Raja Gopaladas launched on a career of conquest , which was marked by his success against the Afghan and Minas .He earned the favour of Akabar by showing his valour at the seige of Daulatabad ,in return of which he was awarded Mansab and a right to own Nakkara–cattle drum.According to Khyat writer Gopaladas who is said to have laid the foundation of Agra Fort in 1566 A.D at Akbar’s request , eventually succeeded his grandfather Raja Chandrasen and enlarged the borders of the State ,on the merit of his birth from the pious branch of the Jadu.He strengthened his kingdom by the construction of the fort of Masalpur.He beautified his capital by the construction of palaces at Masalpur and Zhiri and gardens and temples . He likewise built a mansion at Jhiri , near the Chambal and a fort at Bahadurpur .There too ,he built a temple called Gopal Mandir , in which he deposited an idol brought from Daulatabad. Bhahadur was founded in Sambat 1602 (A.D.1546 ).He was succeeded by Dwarika Das,Mukund Das , Jagmal, Chatarman , Dharmpala II, Ratanpala and Kunwar pala II.
From Gopal Das are descended two of the most important offshoots of the Karauli house ,the Muktawats of Sir Mathura , Jhiri ,and Sabalgarh and the Bahadur ke Jadon sprung from the Tarsam Bahadur ,who obtained Sabalgarh , Bahadurpur and Bijaypur.
Gopal Dad’s grandson Mukund Das (1585)was the ancestor of the still numerous family of Mukund Jadons .His son Chatar Man (1632) was the ancestor through his son Bhup Pal ,of the Inaiti Rao ,one of the five chief nobles of Karauli ,and through another son Shast Pal of the Manoharpur Kotri.From Dharampal ,who succeeded in 1645A.D ,are descended the Gareri , Hadoti ,and Roantra families.
Dwarika Das–-Eldest son of Gopal Das,succeeded him in Samay 1626.He held his own ,but did nothing remarkable.One of his sons was Magad Rai ,who obtained Bager in Saval garh from Darbar.His descendants called the Panch Pir Jadons ,and inhabit Garh Mandorn in Machilpur .
Mukund-–He succeeded his father Samay 1611.He likewise did nothing remarkable.His sons were Jagoman , Chatraman , Deoman , Madanman ,Mahamana, descendants called mukund jadon
Maharaja Gopal Singh—– Raja was a child when he came to the Gaddi.
He was succeeded in 1725A.D.He subdued Muktawat and Jadon of Sir Mathura and extended his territory upto the hills of Sikarwar ,a place near west of Gwalior .He was on good terms with Delhi and was honoured with the Insignia of Mahi Maratib by the Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1753.He is look on as the greatest Chief of Karauli after Gopal Das.The Madan Mohan temple was built by Maharaja Gopal Singh .This chief obtained Madan Mohan idol or thakur ,which was obtained from Mathura through the good offices of Maharaja Jai Singh of Jaipur ,to whom Gopal Singh’s sister was married.He built the masonry wall round the city and the Diwan Am within the Palace.He was in alliance with Suraj Mal ,the Jat ruler of Bharatpur.
Maharaja Tursampal—He was cousin brother of maharaja Gopal Singh II.He was succeeded Sambat 1814 (A.D.1757).He was son of Maharaja Kunwarpal II ‘s younger brother Sonpal.Sikarwar thakurs of Nipri ,south of the Chambal ,rebelled against him and seized the fort.The darwar forces comming against them and so bloody was fight that the stream of the Kuwari close to Nipri was colored red.The Darwar was victorious.He was died 1772 A D.
Maharaja Manakpal–—-Manakpal succeeded on Karauli Gaddi on 24 October 1772.
Manakpal gave shelter to Rana Chhatar Singh of Gohad when Mahadji Sindhiya seized his principality and ousted him in 1784.Hence Scindia demanded his surrender but Manakpal evaded it.Hence Scindia sent a force against Karauli.There was a battle in which Rodji Sindhiya was died.But being hard pressed , Manakpal had to surrender Rana Chhatar Singh to Sindhiya.The Marathas under Sindhiya took not only Sabalgarh but the entire Jadovati from Karauli and the Raja wad compelled to pay tribute to the Marathas,which afterwards was commuted for the grant of Masalpur and it’s dependencies.He died in A.D.1804.
Maharaja Har Bakhsh Pal —— In the next reign ,that of Har Bakhsh Pal second son of Manak pal ,who succeeded in 1804 .In 1812 ,during the time of this ruler of Karauli ,the Marathas invaded this principality to realise arrears of tribute .The Maharaja made peace with them by agreeing to pay Khaudani of Rs.25,000 a year .This tribute was ceded to the British by the Marathas by the treaty of Poona (1817).The Maharaja had ceded the village of Masalpur and it’s dependencies to the Peshava in lien of the tribute ,but as the arrangement was inconvenient for the Brithish Govt, the tribute was relinquished in Nov.1817 at the time of a conclusion of treaty by which the State of Karauli was taken under the protection of the British Govt.He was died in 1838 A.D.
Maharaja Pratap Pal ——-
The reign Maharaja Pratap Pal ,adopted from the Hadoti family ,who succeeded in 1838 ,was marked by much internal dissension and fighting ,which continued notwithstanding the intervention of several British officers till the Maharaja died in 1850 , without a successor.
Narsingh Pal—Narsingh Pal ,a minor ,was adopted by the ruling family as the successor to Pratap Pal.British Govt.in the beginning withheld his recognition for non-payment of the State debt amounting to Rs.1,54,312 /-.But because fractions at Karauli were gaining strength and conditions of Nar Singh Pal .Captain Monck Mason was appointed as an Agent to control the affairs of the State.Nar Singh Pal died on July 10 ,1852.
Maharaja Madan Pal —-Nar Singh Pal had adopted on a day before his death a distant relation named Bharatpal .But his succession was opposed by Madanpal ,a nearer kin of the decreased Raja.
Madanpal had a strong party of adherents like the Rulers of Jaipur ,Alwar ,Bharatpur ,Dholpur ,royal queens and the influential Thakurs of the State.
He was recognized as Chief in 1854 by the Government ,and in his reign Karauli rendered loyal service to the Government during Mutiny.During the mutinies in A.D.1857 ,he evinced a loyal spirit , and eventually sent a body of troops against the Kota mutineers .For his services ; he was created of G.C.S.I; his solute was raised from 15 to 17 guns ; a debt of Rs.1,17,000 due by him to the British Govt.was remitted , and a dress of honor conferred.He has no sons but one daughter ,survived him.Sadar Dispensary ,Karauli City was founded by Maharaja Madan Pal ,G.C.S .I .,in January 1854.
Maharaja Lachhman Pal —–On the Madanpal’s death on 17 August, 1869, his nephew Rao Lachhman Pal ,Rao of Hadoti was installed as the Raja.,but he died very shortly (September 14,1869 ) afterwards ,being followed by Maharaja Jai Singh Pal .
Maharaja Jai Singh Pal —–He succeeded Gaddi but he also died without any successor on November 19,1875. and was succeeded by Maharaja Arjun pal , the Rao of Hadoti and second cousin of Jai Singh Pal was installed as Chief on January 1, 1876 by Col.Wright ,the then Political .Arjun Pal died in July 1886 .
Maharaja Bhanwar Pal —- Arjun pal was succeeded by his nephew Bhanwar pal ,the Rao of Hadoti .He (borned 24th feb.1864) occupied the Karauli Gadi on 14th August 1886. ,Obtained full power in 1889 ,and after receiving a K.C.I.E in 1894 ,was made a G.C.I.E on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen -Empress of India in 1897.The nobles are all Jadon Rajput connected with the ruling house ,and ,though for the most part illiterate ,are a powerful body in the State ,and until quite recently frequently defied the authority of the Darwar.The Chief among them are Hadoti , Amargarh , Inaiti , Raontra ,and Barthun ,and they are called Thikanedars.The Rao of Hadoti is looked upon as the heir to the Karauli Gaddi ,when the ruling chief is without sons .Maharaja Bhanwar pal died on August 3 ,1827 leaving no male child and was succeeded on August 21 ,1927 by Bhompal ,Rao of Hadoti.
Maharaja Bhompal —-
Maharaja Bhaumpal occupied Karauli Gadi on August 21, 1927 .The Maharaja was assisted in administration by a State Council of two members .The State Council was abolished in 1932 and in its place a Dewan ,assisted by an Assistant and a Secretary ,was appointed to carry on the Administration. This arrangement continued till July 25 ,1940 ,when Bhompal delegated all his powers to the heir apparent Ganesh Pal who thenceforth presided over the meetings of the Council (Ijlas Khas ) .He was succeeded by Maharaja Ganesh pal.
Maharaja Ganesh pal —-Maharaja Ganesh Pal ,who ruled till the never of Karauli State in Rajasthan.He wad died on 25 feb.1925.He was last ruler of Karauli State.
He has three sons, Maharajkumar Brijendra pal , Bhanwar Mahendra pal and Surendra pala.
The present Raja of Karauli is H.H.Maharaja Shri Krishna Chandra Pal Deo Bahadur Yadukul Bhal succeeded Karauli Gaddi after the death of his grandfather Maharaja Ganesh pal on March 1985.His father was Maharaj kumar Surendra pal younger son of Maharaja Ganesh pal .He get education in Meyo College Ajmer and has one son Yuvraj Shri Vivasvtpal .
The leading men of Karauli are the nobles who are divided into Thikanedars , Bapotidars and others ;hereditary office bearers , and other officials.The feudal aristocracy of the State consists entirely of the Jadon Thakurs connected with the ruling house.These pay as tribute a fixed sum ,which though nominally one -fourth of the produce of the land ,is in reality much less ,–in fact less than half the share paid by common land -holders .The tribute is in lieu of constant military service which is not performed in their retainers , who on these occasions are maintained at the expense of Darwar. The Thakur’s families (Kotris) paying tribute are Thirty -seven in number ,of which those of Hadoti , Amargarh , Rawantra , Inaiti ,and Barthun, are known as Thikanedars.The remaining families are styled Bapotidars .The other families of nobles are of little importance and belong chiefly to the Haridas and Mukund Kotris and to the Pal family.
Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni, Dist.Hatharas,UP.
Associate Prof.S C.R S Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur , pincode 322001,Rajasthan.
National Media Prabhari ,A. B. K .M.( Wankaner.