The Jadon Clan ( Puranic Yadavas in Sanskrit) Bhatis Rajput of Jaisalmer in Rajasthan early History ——
The chiefs of Jaisalmer belong to the Chandravanshi or Lunar race of Kshatriya’s of which Budha was the founder at a very remote period of the World’s history , and which subsequently expanded into fifty –six branches and became famous throughout India .The chronicles mention Prayag ( the modern Allahabad ) as the cradle of this race , and Muthara as the capital of many years .
The clan to which the Jaisalmer family belongs is called Jadon after Yadu /Yadava or Jadu , who is said to have been the fourth in descent from Budha ,and one of whose successor was the deified hero Shri Krishna , who ruled at Dwaraka .It is said that after the death of Lord Shri Krishna , when the power of Yadavas declined at Dwaraka , some Yadava families proceeding beyond Indus and settled there .One of their descendants , Gaj or Gajpat , built a fort called Gajni or Gajnipur ( identified by Tod as the Ghazni of Afghanistan but belived by Cunningham to be in the vicinity of Rawalpindi , where tradition places as ancient city named Gajipur ) ,but , being defeated and killed in a battle with the king of Khorasan , his followers were driven southward into Punjab where several generations later , Salivahan established a new capital which he called Salbahanpur in Vikrama Samvat 72 ( or about16 A.D. ) after himself and which is generally identified with Sialkot .This chief is said to have conquered the whole of the Punjab to have regained Gajni , and to have had fifteen sons ‘’ all of whom , by the strength of their own arms , established themselves in independence ‘’ ; but , in the time of his successor , Baland , ‘’the Turks ‘’ ( i.e the race from Central Asia ) ‘’ began rapidly to increase and subjugate all beneath their sway , and the lands around .Gajni were again in their power ‘’ , Baland ‘s son Bhati , was renowned warror who conquered many of the neighbouring chiefs , and it is from him that the tribe takes its name of Bhati or Jadon Bhati .He was succeeded by his son Mangal Rao , whose ‘’ fortune was not equal to that of his fathers ‘’ and who on being attacked by taking of Gajni , abandoned his kingdom , fled across the Sutlej and found refuge in the Indian desert which has since been the home of his descendants .The third in succession to Salivahana , Mangal Rao , was driven southward into desert , and that Mangal Rao’s grandson Kehar , laid the foundation of a castle called Tanot ( still in Jaisalmer territory ) , which was completely in 731A.D. ;or , in other words , that Salivahan and his five immediate successors ruled for more than seven hundred years .Again , it is stated that Salivahan’s time the cocoanut ( on offer of marrige ) came from Raj Jai Pal Tanwar of Delhi and was accepted , whereas the Tanwar dynasty ruled at Delhi for just a century from about 1050A.DThe Salivahan above referred to has by some been identified with the hero of the same name , who defeated the Indo-Scythians in a great battle near Kahror within 60 miles of Multan and who , to commemorate the event , assumed the title of Sakari or Foe of the Sakas ( Scythians ) and established the Saka era from the date of the battle ( 78A.D) .= but though this man may be the founder of Salbahanpur ,he can not be the Salivahan described in the annals as the great-grandfather of Mangal Rao , who must have lived in the seventh or eighth century .
Migration to Desert —
The country to which Mangal Rao fled about 1200 years ago was inhabited by various Rajput clans such as the Butas and Channas ( now extinct ) the Barabas ( now musalmans ) ,the Langahas ( a branch of the Solankis ) , and Sodhas and Lodras ( both branches of the Parmaras ) , with the two last and theBarahas be speedily came into collision and subjugated some of their territory .
Majam Rao , was recognized by all the neighbouring princes and married the daughter of the Sodhas chief of Umarkot ( now in Sind ) . His son , Kehar I, was renowned for his daring exploits , and is said to have married the daughter of Alhan Singh , the Deora chief of Jalor .
Tanot the first capital —
Kehar I, laid the foundation of a castle , which he named Tanot after his son and which ,according to the Annals , was completed in 731 , and became the first capital of the Bhatis in this part of the country , the place lies about 75 miles north-west of the town of Jaisalmer .In the time of his successor Tano or Tanuji and Bijai RajI ,fights with the Barabas continued and the latter finding that they could not succeed by open warfare , had recourse to treachery .Under pretence of putting an end to the feud , they invited Bijai Raj’s son and heir ,Deoraj , to marry the daughter of their chief and , when the Bhatis had assembled , they fell on them and slew eight hundred , including Bijai Raj himself ; they subsequently invested and captured Tanot , killed most of the inhabitants ,and the very name of Bhati was for a time nearly extinct .
Deoraj the first Rawal —-
Deoraj , however escaped the massacre through the help of a Brahman and after remaining in hiding for some time , proceeded to the country of his mother , who was of the Buta clan , where he was given land and erected a place of strength which he called Deogarh or Deorawar after himself ; it is marked Derawar on most maps and is now in Babawalpur about 60 miles from the northern fruntier of the Jaisalmer State .Subsequently he proceeded to wreak vengeance on the Barabas and subdue the Langahas , and one of his last exploits was to capture from the Lodra Rajputs the town of Lodorva , an immense city twelve gates , the ruins of which are still to be seen about ten miles north-west of Jaisalmer town .He was one of the most distinguished chief of the clan ,is counted as the real founder of the Jaisalmer family , was the first to assume the title of Rawal and , after ruling for many years , was killed while out hunting by an ambush of Chunna Rajputs .His dates can not be given with any certainty , but if the annals be correct in saying that his son and successor , Munda , married the daughter of Vallabharaja Solanki of Anhilwara Patan , we may say that he died towards the end of the tenth century .
Rawal Jaisal —
Munda suitably avenged his fathers’s death , but he ruled for only a short time , and there is little to be said regarding his successor , Wachuji or Bachers , Dusaj , and Bijai Raj II, except that the last named was the son of a Mewar princess and was olaced on the Gaddi in preferences to two elder brothers ( one of whom was Jaisal ) . Further , Bijai Raj married the daughter of Siddharaja Jai Singh Solanki , and this gives us another date , for the latter ruled at Patan from 1093 to 1143.The issue of this alliance was Bhojdeo who had only just succeeded as Rawal when his uncle Jaisal conspired against him , but ,being always surrounded by a guard of five hundred Solankis , his person was unassailable .Jaisal therefore paid a visit to the king of Ghor and , by awearing allegiance to him , obtained the loan of a force to diapossess his nephew .Lodorva was encompassed and sacked , Bhojdeo was slain in its defence ,the Musalman army marched away with the spoils , and Jaisal became Rawal .Lodorva was , however ill-adapted for defence , sp Jaisal sought for stronger place and found it 10 miles to the south-east ,where he laid the foundation of the fort and city of Jaisalmer in 1156A.D.
Jaisal was succeeded by several warlike chiefs who were constantly engaged in battles and raids , and whose taste for free-booting proved most disastrous , for on two occasions , viz ., in 1295 and shortly afterwards , the Bhatis so enraged the Emperor Ala-ud-din that an Imperial army was dispatched against them , and conquered and sacked the fort and city of Jaisalmer , so that for some time it remained completely deserted .In the sixteenth century , the Bhatis formed an alliance with Amirs of Sind against the Rathors .Rawal Sabal Singh , the twenty-sixth chief in succession to Jaisal , was the first to acknowledge the supremacy of the Delhi Empire , and to hold his dominions in subordination to it .The Jaisalmer chiefs had now arrived at the height of their power .Their territory extended northward to the Sutlej , thus including the whole of the province of Bahawalpur , and westward to the Indus , while to the east and south it comprised many districts , which were subsequently annexed by the Rathors and incorporated in Marwar and Bikaner .From this time till the accession of Rawal Mulraj in 1762 , the fortunes of the State rapidly declined , and most of the outlying districts were wrested from it.Jaisalmer first entered into relations with the Briutish Government in the time of Mulraj .
1- Chiefs and Leading families of Rajputana .By C.S.Bayley.
2-Hand book of Rajputana by Captain A.H.Bingley.
3- Census Report of North-Western Provinces , for 1865 ,Vol.I .,pp.64 ,65.
4- Tod’s Rajasthan , Vol.I.Pp.85-87.
5- Wilson’s Glossary , p.57.
6 – Supplemental Glossary , Vol .I., p.51.p.129.
7- Raja Lachhman Singh , Bulandshahr Memo ,160 sq.
8- Ibbetson ,Punjab Ethnography , section 446.
9 -Cunningham , Archeological Reports ,XX, 5sqq.
10-Crooke William C.A.1886 .The Tribes and Castes of North-Western India.Voll.I to V.
11-The Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North -West Frontier section IV.by H.A.Rose.
12-Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-West .Vol 1.
13-Sherring M.A.Hindu Tribes and Castes .Vol.I to III.Investing .Punjab Castes.
14-Ancient Indian Historical Tradition.by F.E.Pargiter ,1998.
15-Early History of Rajputs .By C.V.Vaidya.
16-Downfall of Hindu India.by C.V.Vaidya .
17-Prachin Bharat men Hindu Rajay.by Babu Vrindavan Das.
18-Prachin Bhartiya Itihas ka Vaidic Yug.by Satya ketu Viday.
19-Chronology of Ancient India by Sita Nath Pradhan .
20-Rajputana -ka-Itihas by J .S.Gahlot 668.
21-Tod ,Annals ,Vol.II, pp.1176 ,1183 ,1199-1200.
22-jaisalmer Khyat .
23-Nensi’s Khyat Vol .II..
24-Bhatti Kavya , vv .87-286.
25-Erskine ,Imperial Gazetteers of India .0p.cit.p.208.
26-Sehgal .,K.K.,Rajasthan District Gazetteers ,Jaisalmer , Jaipur , 1973 .
27-Somani ,History of Jaisalmer .0p.cit p.69.
28-Erskine , The Western Rajputana States Residency and Bikaner Agency ., Rajputana Gazetteer , Vol.III -A ,Allahabad , 1909 .
29-Bhatti Gazani to Jaisalmer by Hari Singh Bhati.
30-Jaisalmer Tawarikh .
Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh ,204216.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai Madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.