The Jadons ,Jadus (hindi ) puranic Yadavas (Sanskrit ) Lunar race Kshatriyas —
Puranic History of Jadons ( Sanskrit Yadavas ) —
The word Jadon (hindi ) is originated from the Sanskrit word Yadava .Karauli Jadon Rajputs being one of the principal existing divisions of the Yadavas of Lunar race kshatriyas , and as claiming to be the direct descendants of Lord Shri Krishna , the god and hero of Braj or Mathura .Their lineage is traced back to Shri Krishna , but the first historical name is Dharmpal a ,77th in descent from Krishna , whose title “Pal “has comedown to the present Karauli Rajas .The founder of Karauli family Maharaja Vijaypala of Bayana.
The ancient regions where Jadons are settled —
The jadons ,who have nearly always remained in or near the ancient country of Sursena or Braj around Mathura (Muttra) ,are said to have at one time held half of Alwar and the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur ,besides the British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra ,the greater part of Agra west of the Jumna ,and portion of Gwalior lying along the Chambal.
Present States and districts where Jadons are found—
Karauli ,Dholpur and Bharatpur .Some jadon families are found in Bhilwara ,Chittorgarh ,Kota , Rajsamand , Baran and Udaipur districts.
2-Madhy Pradesh State-
Muraina ,Bhind , Sheopur , Vidisha ,Guna ,Ashoknagar ,Raysain , Hoshangabad ,Gwalior,Ujjain , Indor districts.
Mathura ,Aligarh ,Hathras ,Etah, Firozabad , Agra, Auraiya ,Kanpur ,Jalaun Bulandshahr ,Hapur ,Kanpur ,Kasganj ,Etawa ,Banda ,Hamirpur ,Mahoba ,Jalaun and Kaushambi districts.
4-Bihar State —
Bhagalpur , Banka ,Munger , Sultanpur ,Purniya and Jamui
Origin of the name Jadon—
The title Jadon ,is traced by Sir Henry Elliot to Yadu or Yadav,but it would perhaps be more correct to say that Jadon ,Jadu ,Jadava ,and Yadava are etymologically the same,the former being corruptions of the last. Dr Hornle has pointed out ,Jadon might be simply a corruption of Jadava as Badon is for Badava.The word Jadava was no longer current in vernacular speech and had been superseded by the hindi Jadu (Badu).which by itself would not admit of expansion in to Jadon (Badon).
The tribe traditionally belongs to the Lunar Race and professes to trace its descent in a direct line from Krishna.Yadu or Jadu according to the same writer ,following Tod is the patronymic of all the descendants of Budha , the ancestor of Lunar Race ,while the title of Jadon is now exclusively applied to the tribe which appears never to have strayed far from the Limits of the ancient Surasena ,and they are found in considerable number in.that neighbourhood.The large tract south of the Chambal rever ,called after them Jaduvati or Yaduvati ,is in the possession of the Gwalior Marhattas and the state of Karauli on the Chambal is now their chief independent possession .
Kuldevi of Jadons—
Kul-Devi of whole Yadus is Yogeshwari (Yogamaya or Yognidra ).
Yadu -Kul-guru – Rishi Gargachary .
Kul-Devta -Lord Shri Krishna
Bayana-Sripatha and Maharaja Vijaypal founder of Karauli Jadons—
Literary and epigraphic sources also support the rule of ancient Yadava /Jadava or Jadon in Mathura,Dang and Mewat regions of Rajasthan either as independent or feudatories of Partihar and Parmars(10) though in the genealogical sketch of Jadavas of Karauli ,it is mentioned that one Dharmpal of the family in 810C E had migrated from Dwarika?(Saurashtra)and conquered the land of Bayana and Mewat , the time of Dharmpal Mewat was under the possession of Paramars.But something like real history begins with Dharmpala ,the 77th in decent from Krishna according to the lists of the chroniclers .He is the frist who bears the name of Pala ,which has descended in the family of the Karauli Raja to the present day.His probable date is about 800 A.D.He and his successors are said to have resided in.Bayana.History of the next seven successors of Dharmpala ,again ,not clear .But during the time of Jitpal (Jaipal or Jai Indrapala),,father of Vijayapala ,Mewat came under the control of Nikumbh Rajputs .We cannot ascertain that before 1036 C E Vijay Pal had any claim over the region of Bayana or Mewat .From Ingnoda inscription of V S1190 it appears that until the commencement of twelfth century Partihars of Kanauj continued to exercise their political influence over Bayana and Mewat .It is possible that in the initial years of his reign over Vijaygarh or Bayana ,Vijaypal might have accepted the suzerainty of Partihars of Kanauj.
Bayana is situated about 48 Kms ,to the south -west of Bharatpur .In early times ,it was knows by various names ,which were probabley kept under different ruling dynasties.Its very old name is said to be Santipura. Inthe two inscriptions of the 11th century ,its name Sripathais given.This name was retained up to the 15th century ,as is clear from by the name of Vijaymandirgarh,after its ruler Maharaja Vijaypala who constructed the fort in the 11th century A D .It was famous by name of Bayana in the 12th century,as known from the Muslim sources. During the muslim period ,Sultankot was the Mohammedan name of new city of Bayana,and the place was afterwards known by the double name Bayana Sultankota .In the inscriptions of 15th ,16th and 17th centuries ,its name is mentioned as Brahmavada.
Tradition relates that a Jadu dynasty formely Sursenas ruled in Bayana ,the modern Bayana ,in the old Bharatpur State,Rajputana ,the ancient name of which was Sripatha.The traditional list of kings of this dynasty ,as given by the bards ,is partly verified by the epigraphic records.These records prove that.the kingdom of this dynasty comprised the old Bharatpur State and the Mathura District.The king Jaitapala or Jayendrapala of the traditional list may be placed in the first half of the 11th century.
Why most Jadon names have the affix “Pal” instead of “Singh”——
It will be noticed that most Jadon names have the affix “Pal” instead of “Singh” .It has been preferred because” Singh ” means “Lion” which ,with all its noble qualities is no respector of Cow, whereas “Pal” signifies “the protector of Cows ” and is thought a more befitting designation for the children of Sri Krishna .Another derivation of the word “Pal” will be found in Volume II ,page 286 ,of Tod,who consider that it signifies pastoral or nomadic.
The real history of affix “Pal”in the Jadavas Jadus /Jadons name begins with Dharmpala , the 77th in descent from Shri Krishna in Jadu clan according to the chroniclers .He is the first who bears the name of “Pala” ,which has descended in the Jadon clan of the Karauli Raja .
Kotris (Estates) of Jadon Kshatriya’s —
In Karauli State the tribute paying jadon families known as Kotries ,were 37 in number .
The principal Kotris—
These principal Kotries are Hadoti , Amargarh , Inaiti , Raontra and Bhartu
Sir Mathura ,Rijhauni ,Biloni
Kathaun ,Amargarh ,Palpur.
Uttar Pradesh —
Somana ,Birpura ,Gabhana ,Kora-Rustampur , Ashrafpur-Jalal ‘Pancho ,Banwaripur ,Branadi ,Mangrauli
Umargarh ,Okhara ,Narkhi ,Jaundhri ,Khera-Neem ,Phariya- Kotla and Awagarh .
Mahaban ,Bayana ,Tahangarh,Hill fort Kesroli ,Karauli fort or place , Untgiri ,Deogiri , Mandrel ,Naroli ,Sapotra , Daulatpura , Thali , Jambura , Khuda , Ninda ,Und ,Khodai , Bahadurpur , Machilpur , Amargarh , Raontra ,Fatehpur ,Inaiti .
Sir mathura ,Jhiri ,Sabalgarh ,Palpur Sumawali , Kotla ,Umargarh ,Awagarh ,Tochhigarh , Gabhana ,Hasayan ,Mendu , Daryapur
Court of arm of Jadon—COA of Karauli Jadavas /Yaduvansi/Jadon Royals…
This COA was made as royal representation/symbol just before Dilli Darbar 1911. British designers visited each n every Gun salute state and in consultation with erstwhile royals and their experts , they designed the COA which was duly approved by British Authorities.
The symbols shown in this COA represents certain history and symbols. For eg.
1- Tiger is included for supreme Power in the forest.
2- Sheep is in support of a myth in which sheep saved a lone yaduvanshi infant by feeding him.
3- quotation shows Sh.Madan Mohan ji as main diety.
4- Cow represents Lord Krishna’s vow to save n rear cows
5-Moon is symbol of being head of Lunar race/Chandra Vanshi
6- Drum represents famous victory of Devgiri and Authorization to Raja Gopal Das Ji by Akbar, its name is Ranjit Nakkara
7- Crown and Dome represents for Head of a clan and independant state
8- Deer is Vahan of Chandrama, and Karauli Royal head being Chandravanshi, deer is placed on top.
9- in the bottom , there are Kalash/Shrifal(Nariyal) placed on both side of Tag line, sacred symbols of Sanatan Dharma.
It is important to mention that a chair was also designed with the embossed design of this COA for Maharaja saheb to be seated during Dilli Darbar, and this chair still there in Maharaja Saheb’s collection.
The COA/Crest/Emblem tradition is from Europe , initiated by princes and warriors right from 12th century and there it is well understood that these are used by particular royals, their successor and family only.
7-Krishna in History ,Thought and Culture :An Encyclopedia of HinduLord by Lavanya Vemsani .
8-Krishna Deities and Their Miracles by Stephen Knapp.
9-Meghdutam of Mahakavi Kalidas.
10-The life and Times of Krishna .byJ.B.Patro.
11-History of Ancient India.by J.P.Mittal
12-Krishna :A journey through the Lands and Legends of Krishna .By Dev Prasad.
13-The complete Life of Krishna .By Devi Vanamali .
14-The story of Ancient Dwaraka .By Devi Vanamala.
15-Braj Centre of Krishna Pilgrimage by A.W.Entwistle and Forsten ,E.1987.pp123 ,132.
16-Mathura: A District Memoir by F .S.Growse .
17- Chiefs and Leading families of Rajputana .By C.S.Bayley.
18-Hand book of Rajputana by Captain A.H.Bingley.
19- Gazetteer of the Karauli State .By Percy Powlett ,1874.
20- Census Report of North-Western Provinces , for 1865 ,Vol.I .,pp.64 ,65.
21- Tod’s Rajasthan , Vol.I.Pp.85-87.
22- Wilson’s Glossary , p.57.
23 – Supplemental Glossary , Vol .I., p.51.p.129.
24- Raja Lachhman Singh , Bulandshahr Memo ,160 sq.
25- Ibbetson ,Punjab Ethnography , section 446.
26 -Cunningham , Archeological Reports ,XX, 5sqq.
27-Crooke William C.A.1886 .The Tribes and Castes of North-Western India.Voll.I to V.
28-The Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North -West Frontier section IV.by H.A.Rose.
29-Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-West .Vol 1.
30-Sherring M.A.Hindu Tribes and Castes .Vol.I to III.
Investing .Punjab Castes.
31-Statistical account of Bhavnagar by J.W.Watson ,Bombay ,1830 ,p.68.
32-Yaduvamsha Prakash ,pp.263-287
33-Bombay Gazetted ,Kathiyavad III ,p.554.
34-Ancient Indian Historical Tradition.by F.E.Pargiter ,1998.
35-Early History of Rajputs .By C.V.Vaidya.
36-Downfall of Hindu India.by C.V.Vaidya .
37-Prachin Bharat men Hindu Rajay.by Babu Vrindavan Das.
38-Prachin Bhartiya Itihas ka Vaidic Yug.by Satya ketu Vidhya.
39-Vraj ka Sanskritik Itihas part I.by Prabhu Dayal Mittal.
40-Vraj ka Itihas part I.by K.D.Bajpai.
41-Prachin Bharat ka Itihas .By Ramakant Tripathi.
42-Paninikalin Bharatvarsh .By Dr Vasudev Saran Agrawal.
Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh ,204216.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.