The Medieval Fort & Town Thangarh (Tribhuvanagiri ) : A Symbol of Bravery of Jadon Rulers —


During the medieval period Thangarh /Tahangarh fort was perceived an adjunct of the large fort at Bayana region . Interestingly , the construction of both these (Vijayamandirgarh and Tanagarh )forts is ascribed to the Jadon Rajput who ruled over Eastern Rajputana in the 11th century A.D.Thangarh fort was built by Tahanpala , the eldest son of Maharaja Vijayapala of Bayana who constructed the fort of Vijayamandirgarh , presently called Bayana fort.
In the year A.H.592 ( A.D. 1196 ) , Muhammad Gauri and.Kutbu-d-din Aibak marched towards Thangar (Thangar or Tahangarh ) is the name of the fort near Bayana and the centre of idolotry and perdition became the abode of glory and splendour (Ettiot &Dowson ).The Thankar ,this name is written Thankar, Bhankar at 297and 304 intra.Ranking (B.I.51, tr.1.71 note )and the writer of the article on Budan in the I.G.are mistaken in identifying it with Bangarh near  Budaun .f.(I.59 ,I.2)asserts in his characteristically careles way , that it is now known as Bayana and paverty has reiterated and disseminated the error ( note ) .But Thangar is realy “Tahangarh” ,a fort lying about 15 miles south of Bayana (seely , Road book of India ,19 ).
Minhas states that Tribhuvangiri was the country of Bayana (304 infra ) .It was as built by Tahanpal (Tribhuvanpala ) Jadon, the ancestor as the raja of Karauli (I G.XV.27 ) .The contemporary writer Fakhuru-d-din Mubarak Shah calls it Tahank (g?) iri, and says it was taken in 592 H (Tarikh, ed.Ross , 25 , I.5ff.) Tahangarh is now in the state of Bharatpur (I.G.xv.27, 34 ).But presently it is in Karauli State .The Rai of Bhangar (Recte Tahangarh ) is mentioned in the Tarikh -i-Mubarak Shahi also (E.D.IV.62 ,I.9 ff .q.v my note ) .Tahangarh was a place of importance even in Babur ‘s time  and is mentioned by him in his Tuzak ( ) .It is marked in the Oxford Indian School Atlas ofJohn Bartholomew , pl.24 and also in the I.G.Atlas pl.34 ,E2. The local pronunciation on now seems to be Timangarh .

Kunwarpal was king of Tribhuvanagiri in 1157 A.D.when Jinadstta  Suri visited  that place in 1112 -54 A.D of the Kharataragaccha sect .It is known from the Mahaban Prasasti of V.1208 or A.D.1151 found near Mathura that Kunwarpala’s son , Ajayapala ,who is given the title of Maharajadhiraj  might have been the ambitious Bhadanaka ruler described as deprived of his bha or “lustre” by the Chahamanas  ruler Vigrahraja IV of Ajmer.But this defeat was not very serious R for we find the Bhadanakas fighting once again against the Chahamanas . Ajaypala ‘s interest in Jainism can be interred from the name Ajayarajavihara given to a monastery of Tribhuvangiri ,where Jain scholars like Vinayacandra stayed and composed their works .
Gold coins for Kumaru -Trihunagiri ” Masa4 “, –i.e.issued by Kumarpala of Tribhuvanagiri .According to Jinapala ,pp-19-20, Jinadatta Suri peached to Kumarpala at Tribhuvanagiri some time before the former’death in VS 1211( 1154A.D) and at that time Tribhuvanagiri was a centre of Jainism .This town has been identified with modern Tahangarh , 24 miles of north of Karauli.

The tradition mentions Haripala as son and successor  of Ajayapala.An inscription of Haripala ,dated A.D.1170 has been found at Mahavan.Haripala was succeeded by Sahanpala , who was on the thorn in1192 A known from an image inscription of that year found at Aghapur in old Bharatpur state.Perhapas he was the Badanaka ruler who came in to conflict with Chauhan ruler Prthviraj III  shortly before v1239(A.D.1182) .The next Seuna ruler was probably Kunwarpala III.When Muhammad  Ghori captured Bayana ,he took refuge in the fort of Tahangarh .But the invader captured this too and handed it over to one of his commander Bahauddin Turghil .This is corroborated by the Jinadattacarita of Laksmana ,who had to leave the fort and roam about till he reached Bilrampur .The Vrttavilasa does not mentine  him .Instead ,it gives the name of Anangapala who might have been the younger brother of Kunwarpala II.,  The tradition list describes Anangapala as the successor of Sohanpala or Sahanpala.But Sohanpala’s successor seems to have been Kunwarpala who ,according to tradition was the predecessor of Ajaypala.when Muhammad Ghori attacked (1196 A.D.)Bayana .Its chief ,Kunwarpal ,evacuated his capital and shut himself in the fort of Tahangarh or Thangarh which he had surrender to after a short siege and the fort was handed over to Baha-ud-din Tughril.Anangpala may be taken to have ascended the thorne after Kunwarpala.According to Vrttavilasa of poet Jadunatha who was patronised by Gopal Singh of Karauli , descendant of Kunwarpala.  The jadon ruler Anangpala was followed in succession by Prithvipala ,Rajpala and Trilokpala ,the last of whom may be placed at the end of thirteenth century A.D.
After the death of Qutb-uddin Aibak ,the Muslim hold over Bayana weakened due to the revival of the power of the dethroned rulers but Iltutmish again subdued them by storming Bayana and Tahangarh.The Jadava dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,being depcived of their strongholds and territories ,migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely that a scion of this family established himself at Karkrala or Karkaralagiri.Later on his descendants came to be known as the Jadavas  Jadus or Jadons of Karauli .

References —-

1-The old name Santipura as known from the local tradition is not confirmed by the epigraphical and literary sources.
2-Et.,XXII ,pp.121-122.
3-Copy of the Manuscript in the Sastra Bhandara of Bayana , see Appendix No .I. for the text.
4-IA,XXI ,p.57.
5-HIED, II ,p.304 and p. 308 .
6-Ibid .
7-CII ,III ,p.251.
8-C H,III ,p.252 .
9-IA ,X ,pp.34-35 .
10-EI ,XXII, 121.
11-V.V.Mishra attributes some coins to king Vatsadaman of the Surasena dynasty .See.IHQ.XVIII ,p.71.
12-G.H.Ojha and R.Burn illustrated the coins of the cow-suckling calf type with legend Sri Vappa.See JASB (1927 ), Num ,Suppl.XXII ,pp14-18.and JNSI ,XXII ,p.279.
13-EI,XXII ,p.121.
14-Ibid III ,p.263.
15-SJS ,XXI (Introduction ) .
17-The Struggle for Empire ,p.13.
18-Archaeological Survey of India Report ,A Tour in Eastern Rajputana (1882-83) ed Alexander Cunningham ,Vol .XX.reprint Varansi ,1969 .
19-Rajasthan District Gazetteers -Bharatpur ,History pp.50-51.
20-ARRMA, 1913-14 ,pp.1-2.see also IA,XIV ,p.10.
21-ONS ,III ,p.1(see Virtavilasa ).
23-Karauli Ka Itihas -Mahavir Prasad Sharma
24-Karauli ki Jaga Pothi-Late Kulbhan Singh ,Akolpura Thikana.
25-Gazetteer of the Karauli State 1874-Percy Powlett.
26-A Gazetteer of Eastern Rajputana : Comprising the Native States of  Bharatpur ,Dholpur and Karauli  ,1905-H.E.Drake-Brockman.
27-Jaisalmer Khyati; Archaeological Survey of India ,Vol ,.20.p.38 .
28-Cultural and Historical Study of Karauli District.-Dr Mohan Lal Gupta .
29-Emperical Gazetteer ;Rajaptana Gazetteer Karauli State ; Rajasthan District Gazetteers -Sawaimadhopur ,
30-Rajputana -ka-Itihas -J.S.Gahlot ;Timangarh Durg,Kala evnm Sanskritik Adhyayan -Ramji Lal Koli.;Karauli Rajaya Ka Itihas -Damodar Lal Garg.
31-Archaecological Survey of India ,Vol .,20 .p.3.
33-The History and Culture of Indian People ,Vol.,V.,The struggle of Empire ,Bombay ,p.55.
34-KB, p.19
35-The Struggle for Empire ,p.55.
36-ONS, III,p.1.
37-The struggle for Empire ,p.1.
38-ARRM, 1913-14 ,No 4, p.2.
39-KB ,pp.19-20.
40-Singh ,R.B.,History of Chahamanas ,Varansi (1964) .
41-Rajasthan District Gazetteers -Bharatpur ,History pp.51 .Imperial Gazetteer ; Alwar Gazetteer
42-Bhachgoti ,
43-Jadu-Vamsa-Ganga Singh ,Jaton Ka Naya Itihas-Dr .Dharmendra Vidhyasankar ;Cunningham.A.Archeological Survey of India Report of a tour in eastern Rajputana in 1882-83 , pp.68-69.
44- New Epigraphical Evidence located at Tahangarh  fort -by V.K.Singh IHC:Proceedings 60th Session 1999,pp.1126-1134.
45-Archaeological Survey of India Report.,Alexander Cunningham ,p57.
46-Studies in Indo-Muslim History by S.H.Hodivala, Vol .I edited by before .-Sanjay Garg.
47-History of Jainism:Medieval Jainism by Kailash Chand Jain.
48-Tahangarh Fort:A study in Historical Archaeology by Dr Vinod Kumar Singh &Dr Manvendra Singh .
4-9Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan (Delhi 1972) by K.C.Jain.
50-Elliot and Dowson ,op.cit .Vol.II.pp.226.
51-Architexture in Medieval India by Monica-Juneja

Author- Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.


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