The medival history of  Jaduvansis of  Mathura , Bayana , Tahangarh  and Karauli —-

The medival history of  Jaduvansis of  Mathura , Bayana , Tahangarh  and Karauli —-

Chandra vansa –—

The Lunar race— The lineage or race which claims descent from the moon. It is divided into two great branches, the Yadavas and Pauravas, respectively , descended from Yadu and Puru. Krishna belonged to the line of Yadu, and Dushyanta with the Kuru and Pando.

In ancient times the whole of the country lying between the Arbali hills of Alwar and the river Jumna was divided
between Matsya on the west and Surasena on the east, with Dasarna on the south and south-east border.
Matsya then included the whole of the present Alwar territory, with portions of Jaypur and Bharatpur. Bairat and
Macheri were both in Matsya-desa ; while Kaman, Mathura, and Bayana were all in Surasena. To the east were the Panchalas, who held Rohilkhand and Antarbeda, or the
Gangetic Doab.
The Surasenas were Jadavas, or Jadovansis, to which race belonged both Krishna and his antagonist Kansa, the king of Mathura. A large portion of their old territory is still in the possession of the Jadon Raja of Karauli.
The Surasenas had a separate dialect, known in ancient times as the Suraseni, just as their descendants, the present
people of Braj, have their own dialect of Braj Bhasha. At the time of Alexander’s invasion the Surasenas worshipped a
god whom the Greeks identified with Herakles. Their chief towns were Methora and Kleisoboras, or Mathura and Krishnapura, between which flowed the river Jomanes orJumna .

During the long period of 13 centuries between the expeditions of Alexander the Great and Mahmud of Ghazni, the political changes experienced by Mathura were even greater than the religious ones. The old Yadava line of princes had first succumbed to the power bf the great Maurya dynasty of Magadha, and was afterward overwhelmed by an irruption of the Indo-Scythians, who, about the beginning of the Christian era, established themselves firmly in Mathura, under the Satraps Raiubul and his son Saudasa. The rule of these chiefs is attested by both coins and inscriptions found on the spot. During the whole, or the greater part, of the first two centuries of the Christian era, Mathura formed the most eastern province of the great Indo-Scythian empire of Kanishka and his successors Huvisfrka and Vasu Deva, as proved by  their coins and inscriptions exhumed on the spot. The country of the Surasenas then fell under the powerful sway of the Gupta dynasty, whose coins and inscriptions have also been found at Mathura. In the Puranas the possession of Mathura is assigned to the nine Nkga kings, who would appear to have been contemporary with the Guptas,
and who were most probably their tributaries. The dominant power of the Guptas was broken about A.D. 319, on the death of Skanda Gupta, but they continued to rule over Northern India for some centuries later.
At the time of Hwen Thsang’s visit, in A.D. 635, taking of Mathura was a Sudra, but only a few centuries later the Jadon Rajputs are found in fu}l possession of both Bayana and Mathura, the former under Vijaya PAla in A.D. 1043, and his son Tahan Pala, and the latter under Ajaya Pala in A.D. 1150. Nearly the whole of Eastern Rajputana therefore formerly belonged to the Yaduvansi, or Jadon Rajputs. They held one-half of Alwar, with the whole of Bharatpur, Karauli, and Dholpur, besides the British districts of
Gurgaon, Mathura, and the greater part of Agra to the west of the Jumna. It seems probable also that they may have held some portions of the present Gwalior territory, lying along the Chambal River opposite Karauli.
As nearly all the places which I visited during my last tour lay within the limits which I have assigned to Eastern Rajputana, some account of the principal races who have held these countries for about three thousand years seems to be necessary. These are the Lunar Yaduvansis and the Solar Nikumbhas in ancient times, and in later days the Khanzadahs and the Meos.

The origin of the name Jadon

The word Jadon ,is traced by  Sir Henry Elliot to Yadu or Yadav,but it would perhaps be more correct to say that Jadon ,Jadu ,Jadava ,and Yadava are etymologically the same,the former being corruptions of the last. Dr Hornle has pointed out ,Jadon might be simply a corruption of Jadava as Badon is for Badava.The word Jadava was no longer current in vernacular speech and had been superseded by the hindi Jadu (Badu).which by itself would not admit of expansion in to Jadon (Badon).

Ancient Yadus /Yadavas (Sanskrit ) means in Hindi  is Jadus /Jadon.The modern Bhatis ,Jadons and Jadejah are the real yadus or Yadava clan of Lunar race kshatriyas .
According to Vasistha,the priest of Raja Sudas in his prayers to Indra says( Rv.VII, 19 , 8.) that  the Yadava and Turvasa evidently means the distant descendants of Yadu and Turvasu  of Lunar race kshatriy kings , sons of Maharaja Yayati and his wife Devayani respectively , for the word Yadava is admittedly a Vedic patronymic derived from Yadu , and the word Turvasa is a derivative of the Vedic word Turvas , {Turvas being the Vedic form which stands for the Puranic form Turvasu ; the form Turvasu also is some times used in the Rgveda} .same is in case of Yadava and Yadu .Lines other than those preserved in the Puranas existed , as each king was the father , not of one son only ,but of many sons ;in this way the Yadus and Turvasus multiplied into Tribes.The chiefs of these  tribes  were titled as Yadavas and Turvasa respectively.
Mahabharata says (Kumb MBh I ,79 ,42)
“It has been remembered that the Yavanas and Yadavas were the descendants of theTurvasu and Yadu ,the sons of Yayati Nahusa .” The Philologists declare that the “Y “in ‘Yavana or Yadava ‘ may be replaced by “J” ; that is both the form “Yavana ” and “Javana” , same as in” Yadava and Jadava ” are permissible and therefore the interchangeable.Javana even in later Sanskrit literature “one who possesses speed ” .Now the word Turvas also means “one who runs fast ” ; so that both the words Turvas and Javanas means same .Just as the Yadavas mean the descendants of Yadu   .So the Yavanas –the Javanas mean the descendants of Yavana (Turvasu ) .

The only Hindu descendants of the Yaduvansis at the present day are the Jadons of the small state of Karauli, to
the west of the Chambal, and the Jadons of Sabalgarh, or Jadonvati, in the Gwalior territory to the east of that river. But the Musalmans acknowledged jadon descent form a very large portion of the population of Eastern Rajputana,
from Sohna and Alwar on the West to the Chambal on the
east, and from the banks of the Jumna to Karauli and Sabalgarh on the south. These Jadon Musalmans are now known as the Khanzadahs and Meus or Meos .
The Yaduvansis, of course, claim descent from Krishna,
the acknowledged lord of Mathura after the death of Kansa. Their early history, therefore, consists of a number of the
popular tales of Krishna derived from the Mahabharta and the Puranas. But something like real history begins
with Dha’rma Pala, the 77th in descent from Krishna according to the lists of the chroniclers. He is the first who bears the  name of Pala , which has descended in the family of the
Karauli Rajas to the present day. His probable date is about 800 A.D. He and his successors are said to have
resided in Bayana. The eleventh in descent from Dharma
PAla is Vijaya Pala, to whom the building of the fortress of Vijayamandargarh is unanimously attributed. An inscription bearing his name still exists on one of the Hindft pillars of the Masjid in the Bahari-Bhitari-Mohalla in the town of
Bayana. It gives the date of Sambat 1100, or A.D. 1043. His son was Tahan Pala,who built the great Fort of Tahan-
garh, which stands on the crest of the long sandstone range of hills 14 miles to the south of Bayana, and the same distance to the east of Hindaun. His date will, therefore, be about Sambat 1130, or A.D., 1073. From him the Khanzadahs trace their descent. After the occupation of Bayana by the Muhammadans, the RAja Kunwar Pal retired to Tahangarh, whither he was followed by Muhammad Ghori and
his general Kutb-ud-din Aibak. The reigning Raja is named Kuwar, Pala by the Muhammadan historians, and this name is found in the list of the bards as the second or third prince ‘ after Tahan Pala. His date, therefore, corresponds very fairly with that of the capture of Tahangarh in A.H. 592, or A.D.
1196. In Mahaban, an inscription was obtained by the name of Raja Ajaya Pala Deva, dated in Sambat 1207, or A.D. 1150. In the lists his name follows immediately after that of Kuwar Pal. He is, therefore, placed as much too late as Kuwar Pal is too early. By transposing the two their dates would agree exactly with that of the inscription and the Muhammadan historian. On the capture of Tahangarh the Jadon Raja retired to
Karauli, and when hard-pressed by the Muhammadans he retreated across the Chambal to the jungles of Sabalgarh,
which the family succeeded in adding to their territories under the name of Jadonvati, which that district still bears. Eventually the Raja returned to Karauli, where his descendant still reigns .
The names in the two following lists are derived from the bards’ chronicles ; the first from the books of Mukji, the
famous bard of the Khichi Chauhans, and the second from those of the Bayana Bhats. They agree fairly well, and are, believe, quite as trustworthy as any lists derived from similar sources. If is probable that several names have been omitted, as the average length of reign of the recorded names is nearly 23 years. Vijaya Pala, the 12th Raja in the above list, was reigning in Sambat 1100, or A.D. 1043, and Hari Pala, the 47th king, died in 1850, shortly afterwards. Thirty- six kings thus reigned for about 850 years, or nearly 23 years each. This is, of course, possible, as the mean length of an Indian generation is about 25 years. But as the mean length of an Indian reign is not more than 15 or 16 years,  it probable that several names may have dropped out.
In the following list the approximate dates only are entered, as calculated at the average of 22 years per reign, with some slight variations in the earlier reigns to suit the known
dates:— Yaduvansi Rajas of Bayana and Karauli.


2-Mahabharta .
3-Vishnupurana .
4-Harivanshpurana .
7-Krishna in History ,Thought and Culture :An Encyclopedia of HinduLord by Lavanya Vemsani .
8-Krishna Deities and Their Miracles by Stephen Knapp.
9-Meghdutam of Mahakavi Kalidas.
10-The life and Times of Krishna .byJ.B.Patro.
11-History of Ancient J.P.Mittal
12-Krishna :A journey through the Lands and Legends of Krishna .By Dev Prasad.
13-The complete Life of Krishna .By Devi Vanamali .
14-The story of Ancient Dwaraka .By Devi Vanamala.
15-Braj Centre of Krishna Pilgrimage by A.W.Entwistle and Forsten ,E.1987.pp123 ,132.
16-Mathura: A District Memoir  by F .S.Growse .
17- Chiefs and Leading families of Rajputana .By C.S.Bayley.
18-Hand book of Rajputana by Captain A.H.Bingley.
19- Gazetteer of the Karauli State .By Percy Powlett ,1874.
20- Census Report of North-Western Provinces , for 1865 ,Vol.I .,pp.64 ,65.
21- Tod’s Rajasthan , Vol.I.Pp.85-87.
22- Wilson’s Glossary , p.57.
23 – Supplemental Glossary , Vol .I., p.51.p.129.
24- Raja Lachhman Singh , Bulandshahr Memo ,160 sq.
25-  Ibbetson ,Punjab Ethnography , section 446.
26 -Cunningham , Archeological Reports ,XX, 5sqq.
27-Crooke William C.A.1886 .The Tribes and Castes of North-Western India.Voll.I to V.
28-The Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North -West  Frontier section H.A.Rose.
29-Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-West .Vol 1.
30-Sherring M.A.Hindu Tribes and Castes .Vol.I to III.
Investing .Punjab Castes.
31-Statistical account of Bhavnagar by J.W.Watson ,Bombay ,1830 ,p.68.
32-Yaduvamsha Prakash ,pp.263-287
33-Bombay Gazetted ,Kathiyavad III ,p.554.
34-Ancient Indian Historical F.E.Pargiter ,1998.
35-Early History of Rajputs .By C.V.Vaidya.
36-Downfall of Hindu C.V.Vaidya .
37-Prachin Bharat men Hindu Babu Vrindavan Das.
38-Prachin Bhartiya Itihas ka Vaidic Satya ketu Vidhya.
39-Vraj ka Sanskritik Itihas part Prabhu Dayal Mittal.
40-Vraj ka Itihas part K.D.Bajpai.
41-Prachin Bharat ka Itihas .By Ramakant Tripathi.
42-Paninikalin Bharatvarsh .By Dr Vasudev Saran Agrawal.
43-Chronology of Ancient India by Sita Nath Pradhan .
44-Rajputane- ka -Itihas by Jagdish Singh Gahlot.
45-The cultural and historical studies of Karauli Dr M.L.Gupta.
46-Vir -Vinod by Shyamal das .
47-Rajasthan through the Sharma ,.H.S.
48-Karauli Khyat -Unpublished.
49-Karauli Rajay ka Itihas .By Damodar Lal Garg.

Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh ,204216.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai Madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.

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