The Yadava Rajputs (Modern Jadons )of Karauli Royal House —
Meaning of Yadava–
According to various national and International Historians the Lunar race Yadava is a Sanskrit word and it’s hindi version is known as Jadon used for Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas ( Modern Rajput Community ).It is mentioned in various well known history books written by reputation historians and Government district Gazetteers of many States like Uttar pradesh ,Rajasthan, Haryana,Punjab ,Bombay and Gujrat also.
Raja Vijayapala and his successors–—
Like the Bhatis of Jaisalmer , the chiefs of Karauli also belonged to the Yadava clan of Rajputs .This Yadava dynasty of Karauli began with Vijayapala of Bayana . He migrated from Mathura and settled in the hilly region of eastern Rajasthan, where he laid the foundation of the fort and the capital of Vijayamandargarh in 1040.This fort was later known as Bayana. The Khyata writers refer to his conflict with the Turkish invaders from Ghazni. In contemporary records he is called Paramabhattaraka, which establishes his political preeminence in this line .He may have lived till 1093 . The fort of Bayana , was captured by the Churid Invaders (1).
Tahanpala (1093-1159), son of Vijayapala, was a powerful king of this dynasty. In the course of a long reign of sixty-six years he did much to increase the power of his kingdom by constructing the fort of Tahangarh (the Thankar of Persian histories), fifteen miles from Bayana, and by making fresh conquests. He extended his kingdom by bringing within it the major parts of Dang , Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Gudgaon, Mathura, Agra and Gwalior. This political sovereignty over the wide expanse of territory is further established by his title of Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameswara (2).
The two succeeding rulers, who followed Tahanpala, could not maintain their hold over their patrimony, partly due to the conflicts within the family and partly owing to the growing power of their feudatories. They also failed in opposing Mu’izzuddin Ghuri, who took possession of Bayana and Tahngarh (or Thankar) in 1196. From 1196 to 1327, the chronology of this line is uncertain. It seems that this period was marked by disorder and that the fortunes of the dynasty had declined for a lime (3) .
Raja Arjun pala Founder of Karauli and His successors—
Raja Arjunpala (1327-61 ) son of Gokuldeva, was one of the greatest kings of this dynasty .By defeating Miyan Makkhan of Mandrayal, who was unpopular in the region, he again got a foot hold in his home territory.He further established his authority over his kingdom by suppressing the Minas. and the Panwar Rajputs.
Origin of the Karauli–
Karauli derives its name from the headquarter town of the same name, which was
the capital of the erstwhile Princely State of Karauli. The word “Karauli” is an aberration of
the name “Kalyanpuri”. The ancient name of this state was “Karkralagiri”, as it was
circumscribed by mountains. The princely state of Karauli was founded by Yaduvanshi King
Arjun Dev, a descendant of Lord Krishna, in 1348 AD. The temple of Kalyanrai (Lord Krishna)
is synonymous to the foundation of Karauli .Raja Arjun pala making karauli beautiful with mansions, lakes, gardens and temples (4) .
Location of Karauli–
The Karauli is located towards north eastern Rajasthan, between the north latitudes 26°3’ and
26°49’ and between the east longitudes 76°35’ and 77°26’. It is surrounded by Dholpur district
in the north east, by Sawai Madhopur district in the south west, by Dausa district in the west, by Bharatpur district in the north and by the state of Madhya Pradesh towards its southeast.
The area of the Karauli state is 5524 sq. km.
Raja Arjunpala’s successors-—
The successors of Raja Arjun pala were more or less insignificant. They became involved in family feuds and this made them too weak to face the onslaught of their enemies. During the reign of Prithvipala, the Afghans captured Tawangarh (Thankar) in the first quarter of the fifteenth century. Though he repulsed the attack of the ruler of Gwalior, he failed to suppress the Minas who had grown formidable (5 ).Maharaja Chandrapal (fifteenth in the line) was a religious-minded ruler; he could not withstand the attack of Mahmud Khalji of Malwa, who penetrated into his kingdom and stormed his capital in 1454. The victorious Sultan retired to his capital after handing over Karauli to his son, Fidvi Khan. After being ousted from Bayana, Chandra pala led the retired life of a devotee at Untagarh. It seems that he and his successors retained their authority over a narrow strip of land around the place of their refuge till one of his successors, Gopaldas, got back a portion of his territory during Akbar’s time (6).
Archaeological Survey of India N
Vol. 20, 38. Karauli Gazetteer , 3.
2-Archaeological Survey of India, Vol.20 ,3
3-Chronology of India, 175
4-Elliot, Vol. V, 93, Ghhalot, History of Rajputana,
5- History of Rajputana, 602-3. 6-Akabarnama, III, 157, 434, 598, Ain-i Akabary Vol.1 , 564, 595.
Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001. .