The Yaduvansis (Ancient /Pauranik Yadavas or Modern Jadons ) of Lunar race Kshatriya’s of Karauli ——

The Yaduvansis (Ancient /Pauranik Yadavas or Modern Jadons ) of Lunar race Kshatriya’s of Karauli ——

Ancient Period

Like the Bhati of Jaisalmer ,the chiefs of Karauli trace their descent from the Ancient /Pauranik Yadava clan of Kshatriya.Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs who claim descent from Bajarnabha (son of Aniruddha and Rochana ,great grand daughter of Vidharv Raj Rukmi brother of Rukmaniji  ) great grand son of Shri Krishna.

They had established their political preeminence in the early part of the 10th century by constructing the fort of Tahangarh and making fresh conquest.But they were reduced to the position of insignificant fiefholders when their forts as well as its surrounding region was occupied by Muizzuddin Ghori in 1196 A.D.After the death of Kutub-ud-din Aibak ,the muslim hold over Bayana weakened due to the revival of the power of the dethroned Jadon rulers but in 1234 A.D, Iltutamish captured this entire area and  again subdued them by storming Bayana and Tahangarh .The Yaduvanshi dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,again being deprived of their strongholds and territories  ,migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely that a scion of this family established himself at Karkrala or Karkaralagiri ( 10 ).Later on his descendants came to be known as the Jadavas /Jaduvansis /Jadons of Karauli .

  Mediaeval Period—-
 
After the fall of Tahangarh (Thangarh or Tribhuvanagiri ) after Kunwar pal ,the other succeeding rulers , could not regain their patrimony .From 1196 to 1327 A.D.the chronology of this line is uncertain .It seems that this period was marked by disorder and that the fortunes of the dynasty had declined for time (  11 ).The territory remained in possession of the invaders for a period of about 130 years when Raja Arjun Pala ( A.D.1327-61) son of Gokuladeva (some historians say that Arjun pala was the son of Anangapala brother of Kunwar pala) was one of the greatest king of this  Jadu dynasty.By defeating representative of Mohmmad Tugluq (Miyan Makkhan) of Mandrayal ,who was unpopular in the region ,he again got a foot hold in his home territory by taking Minas and Panwar Rajputs in his confidence and captured Mandrail Fort.He further established his authority over his kingdom by suppressing the Minas and Panwar Rajputs and gradually took possession of most of the country formerly held by Tahan Pala.He is also credited with having founded the town of Kalyanpuri in 1348A.D laterally known as present capital ,Karauli town and making it beautifully with mansions ,lakes ,gardens ,and temples ( 12 ). He built the Thakur Kalyanaji on the site of Karauli ,a name which is said to be a corruption of Kalyanaji. and  he so built Anjani Mata temple.In other words we can say that Karauli  was originally called Kalyanpuri after the temple of Kalyanji (Shri Krishana ) (13 ) , built about the same year.It‘s  ancient  name was  Karkrala or Karkralagiri being surrounded by circular mountain ranges  .The town was also known by the name Bhadrawati , after the river , which flows close by.During this period  ,27 kings ruled the land .Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs who claim descent from Bajarnabha (son of Aniruddha and Rochana ,great grand daughter of Vidharv Raj Rukmi brother of Rukmaniji  ) great grand son of Shri Krishna.
Arjun pala ‘s death was followed by the significant reigns of Prthvipala ,Udaipala and Pratap rudra and Chandrapal.Prthvipal was ,deprived of Tahangarh fort by the Afgans .He failed to suppress the Minas who had grown formidable .Maharaja Chandrapal was deprived of his kingdom by Mahmud Khilji of Malwa in A.D.1454 and was forced to live a retired life in Untgarh.

Mahmud Khalji of Malwa  is said to have conquered the country, and to have entrusted the government to his son, Fidwi Khan. In the reign of Akbar (1 556-1 605) the State became incorporated in the Delhi empire, and Gopal Das (1449-1589 A.D.)grand son of Maharaja Chandrapal  probably the most famous of the chiefs of Karauli, launched on a career of conquest ,which was marked by his success against Afgans and Minas .He appears to have been in considerable favour with the emperor Akbar by showing his valour at the seige of Daulatabad in return of which he war awarded Nandan and a right to own Nakkara -cattle drum. He is mentioned as a commander of 2,000 . According to Khyat writers Akbar requested him to lay the foundation of the fort of Agra in A.D.1566 ,on the merit of his birth from the pious branch of the Yadu (Shri Krishna ).He strengthened his kingdom by the construction of the fort of Masalpur .He beautified his capital by the construction of palaces ,gardens and temples.

From 1589 -1724 A.D. seven weak rulers occupied the throne leading the state on the anarchy and confusion .They were either mere puppet in the hands of rival baronial parties or were under the influence of the ministers of harem.But the last important ruler Maharaja Gopal Singh II was by far the most eminent prince of this dynasty.He over powered the hostile neighbours and the countries .By entering into alliance with Marathas for the payment of tribute he saved his kingdom from their raids.Throughout his region of about 33 years he kept himself engaged in extending the limits of his kingdom , punishing the rebels and providing means to his subject to improve their lot.He was also a great builder ,to whom Karauli is indebted for some of her building of Diwani -Am , Tripolia , Nakkarkhana and city wall raised after Mugal pattern.Out of devotion towards Vishnu he constructed the temples of Gopal and Madanamohan .
Gopaladas has three sons Dwarika Das ,Mukund Das and Tursam Bahadur.From Gopal das are descended two of the most important offshoots of the Karauli house ,the Muktawats of Sir Mathura , Jhiri ,and Sabalgarh ,and the Bahadur ke Jadon sprung from the Tursam Bahadur ,who obtained Sabalgarh , Bahadurpur , and Bijaipur .
Gopal Das ‘s grandson Mukund Das (1586) was ancestor of the still numerous families of Mukund Jadons .His son Chatar Man (1632) was ancestor through his son Bhup Pal ,Rao of the Inaiti ,one of the five chief nobles of Karauli  ,and through another son Shast Pal of the Manoharpur Kotri .From Dharmpal ,who succeeded in 1645 , are descended the Gareri , Hadoti , and Roantra families .Gopal Singh ,who succeeded in 1725 , was good terms with Delhi ,whence he received the coveted Mahi Martib or fish insignia .He looked on as the greatest chief of Karauli after Gopal Das. In the time of Maharaja Manak Pal (1772) the state was much harassed by the Mahrattas under Sindhiya and his General , Baptiste , and eventually lost Sabalgarh .

Modern period —

In the next reign , that of Har Bakhsh Pal ,who succeeded in 1804 ,Karauli first entered into relations with the British Government .These ended in the treaty of 1817 ,which rid the State of the Mahrattas .The reign of Maharaja pratap Pal ,who succeeded in 1837 ,was marked by much internal dissension and fighting ,which continued notwithstanding the intervention of several British officers till the Maharaja died .Order was restored in the next reign ,that of the minor Maharaja Narsingh Pal (1850-1852) ,by Lieutenant Monck-Mason.On this Chiefs death ,the well known Karauli adoption case came before the Government , and it was finally decided that though there was no direct heir ,the State should be preserved.Madan pal was recognized as Chief , and in his reign Karauli rendered loyal service to the Government during Mutiny.On his death in 1869 , his nephew Rao Lachhman Pal succeeded him , but died very shortly afterwards ,being followed by Maharaja Jay Singh Pal ,who died in 1875 and was succeeded by Maharaja Arjun Pal , on which death in 1886 the Maharaja Bhanwar Pal ,was borned in 1864 ,was installed in 1886 , obtained full power in 1889 occupied the Karauli gadi and after receiving  a K.C.I. E.In 1894 ,was made a G.C.I.E in 1897 .He died in 1927 and left no heir direct or adopted and was succeeded by Bhim Pal Rao and the latter by Ganesh Pal who ruled till the merger of Karauli State in Rajasthan.

References—

1-Gazetter of the Karauli State by Percy Powlett ,1874 .
2-The Chiefs and Leading Families in Rajputana by C.S.Bayley.
3-Rajasthan Through the Ages by Sharma ,Dasharath ,. 1966 ,. page 697-698.
4-A Comprehensive History of India Vol V ,
5-Early Chauhan Dynasties,Delhi (1959)  by Sharma , Dasharatha .
6-Rajasthan District Gazetteers :Sawai madhopur by Savitri Gupta ..
7-Veer Vinod by Kaviraja Shyamal Das .
8-Rajputana ka Itihaas by Mm.G.H.Ojha.
9Gahlot J S ,Rajputana -ka -Itihas pp ,604-607.
10-Akabarnama ,Vol.III ,pp 157 ,434 ,518
11Ain -i-Akbari ,Vol.I ,pp,564 ,593 .
12-Elliot ,Vol .V.,p.98.
13A Comprehensive History of India .,Vol ,V.Chapter X by the author ,pp.838 ,839.
14Karauli Khyati
15-Archeological Survey of India ,Vol.20 ,pp.3, 38
16-Imperial gazetteer of India ,Vol .15 ,p ,26-27,Karauli State.
17_Jadon Vansiyonka Itihas -Karauli ka Vijaypal ,No 19/27 ,Alwar Puralekhiy (Non -archival -Library Section)Rajasthan Archives Office ,Bikaner.
18-Yadav Vansho ka Itihas Sambat 867 Vikarmi se 1094 tak ,No 269 ,8/27 ,Alwar Puralekhiy (Non -archival -Library Section ),Rajasthan Archives Office ,Bikaner .
19-Jaisalmer Khyati ,op . cit.,p22.
20-James Tod ,Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan ,Vol.II.oxford 1920 ,p1182
21-Elliot and Dowson,History of India as told by its own Historiyans  ,New Delhi .op.cit .,II.P.143.
22-Karauli pothi ,
23-Office of the Tahsildar ,Karauli.
24-A gazetteer of eastern Rajputana comprising the native States of Bharatpur ,Dholpur and Karauli bybH.E.Darke-Bockman ,1905.p.298.
25-Rajasthan District Gazetteer -Sawaimadhopur.pp.,29-42.

Author. -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Aadmi
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College Sawai madhopur ,Rajasthan ,322001.

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