The Yaduvansis ( Modern Jadon Kshatriyas) of East Rajasthan——
One yaduvanshi family namely ,the Bhatis of Jaisalmer like another Yaduvanshi family ruled at Sripatha or Bayana (with Tribhuvanagiri or Tahangarh perhaps as it’s second capital ) ,up to the time of Kumarpala II when Muhammad Ghori captured both these strongholds . According to the Karauli Khyat writers this family belong to the Lunar line of Rajputs ,claim descent from ancient /pauranik Yadava dynasty of remote period .
According to the Karauli authorities ,Maharaja Vijaypal ,a descendant of Shri Krishna ,came from Mathura in 995A.D.to the hill Mani which overlooks the modern town of Biana and established himself as a powerful monarch .Fifty -one years latter the rule of Bijaypala was brought to an end by the Musalmans of Ghazni under the leadership of Abu Bakr Shah , Kandahari .
According to the genealogy given by the Vrttavilasa of Yadunatha , Kumarpala was followed in due order by Ajaypala Haripala , Sahanpala , Anangapala , Prthvipala , Rajpala , Trilokpala, Bapaladeva , Asaladeva , Sahasaldeva , Ghughaladeva , Arjunadeva , Vikramaditya , Vakhatavilasa (?). Abhayachanda , Prthviraja , Rudrapratap , Chandrasena ,and many others .Of these the last named was a contemporary of Akabar , and talked Karauli which is said to have been founded by Arjunadeva in V .1405 (A.D.1348) .Either Arjunadeva himself or Ghughaladeva perhaps could have been a contemporary of Alauddin Khalji .
After the fall of Tahangarh (Thangarh or Tribhuvanagiri ) after Kunwar pal ,the other succeeding rulers , could not regain their patrimony .From 1196 to 1327 A.D.the chronology of this line is uncertain .It seems that this period was marked by disorder and that the fortunes of the dynasty had declined for time .The territory remained in possession of the invaders for a period of about 130 years when Raja Arjun Pala ( A.D.1327-61) son of Gokuladeva (some historians say that Arjun pala was the son of Anangapala brother of Kunwar pala) was one of the greatest king of this Jadu dynasty.By defeating representative of Mohmmad Tugluq (Miyan Makkhan) of Mandrayal ,who was unpopular in the region ,he again got a foot hold in his home territory by taking Minas and Panwar Rajputs in his confidence and captured Mandrail Fort.He further established his authority over his kingdom by suppressing the Minas and Panwar Rajputs and gradually took possession of most of the country formerly held by Tahan Pala.He is also credited with having founded the town of Kalyanpuri in 1348A.D laterally known as present capital ,Karauli town and making it beautifully with mansions ,lakes ,gardens ,and temples . He built the Thakur Kalyanaji on the site of Karauli ,a name which is said to be a corruption of Kalyanaji. and he so built Anjani Mata temple.In other words we can say that Karauli was originally called Kalyanpuri after the temple of Kalyanji (Shri Krishana ) built about the same year.It‘s ancient name was Karkrala or Karkralagiri being surrounded by circular mountain ranges .The town was also known by the name Bhadrawati , after the river , which flows close by.During this period ,27 kings ruled the land .Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs who claim descent from Bajarnabha (son of Aniruddha and Rochana ,great grand daughter of Vidharv Raj Rukmi brother of Rukmaniji ) great grand son of Shri Krishna.
Arjun pala ‘s death was followed by the significant reigns of Prthvipala ,Udaipala and Pratap rudra and Chandrapal.Prthvipal was ,deprived of Tahangarh fort by the Afgans .He failed to suppress the Minas who had grown formidable .Maharaja Chandrapal was deprived of his kingdom by Mahmud Khilji of Malwa in A.D.1454 and was forced to live a retired life in Untgarh.
Mahmud Khalji of Malwa is said to have conquered the country, and to have entrusted the government to his son, Fidwi Khan. In the reign of Akbar (1 556-1 605) the State became incorporated in the Delhi empire, and Gopal Das (1449-1589 A.D.)grand son of Maharaja Chandrapal probably the most famous of the chiefs of Karauli, launched on a career of conquest ,which was marked by his success against Afgans and Minas .He appears to have been in considerable favour with the emperor Akbar by showing his valour at the seige of Daulatabad in return of which he war awarded Nandan and a right to own Nakkara -cattle drum. He is mentioned as a commander of 2,000 . According to Khyat writers Akbar requested him to lay the foundation of the fort of Agra in A.D.1566 ,on the merit of his birth from the pious branch of the Yadu (Shri Krishna ).He strengthened his kingdom by the construction of the fort of Masalpur .He beautified his capital by the construction of palaces ,gardens and temples.
From 1589 -1724 A.D. seven weak rulers occupied the throne leading the state on the anarchy and confusion .They were either mere puppet in the hands of rival baronial parties or were under the influence of the ministers of harem.But the last important ruler Maharaja Gopal Singh II was by far the most eminent prince of this dynasty.He over powered the hostile neighbours and the countries .By entering into alliance with Marathas for the payment of tribute he saved his kingdom from their raids.Throughout his region of about 33 years he kept himself engaged in extending the limits of his kingdom , punishing the rebels and providing means to his subject to improve their lot.He was also a great builder ,to whom Karauli is indebted for some of her building of Diwani -Am , Tripolia , Nakkarkhana and city wall raised after Mugal pattern.Out of devotion towards Vishnu he constructed the temples of Gopal and Madanamohan .
Gopaladas has three sons Dwarika Das ,Mukund Das and Tursam Bahadur.From Gopal das are descended two of the most important offshoots of the Karauli house ,the Muktawats of Sir Mathura , Jhiri ,and Sabalgarh ,and the Bahadur ke Jadon sprung from the Tursam Bahadur ,who obtained Sabalgarh , Bahadurpur , and Bijaipur .
Gopal Das ‘s grandson Mukund Das (1586) was ancestor of the still numerous families of Mukund Jadons .His son Chatar Man (1632) was ancestor through his son Bhup Pal ,Rao of the Inaiti ,one of the five chief nobles of Karauli ,and through another son Shast Pal of the Manoharpur Kotri .From Dharmpal ,who succeeded in 1645 , are descended the Gareri , Hadoti , and Roantra families .Gopal Singh ,who succeeded in 1725 , was good terms with Delhi ,whence he received the coveted Mahi Martib or fish insignia .He looked on as the greatest chief of Karauli after Gopal Das. In the time of Maharaja Manak Pal (1772) the state was much harassed by the Mahrattas under Sindhiya and his General , Baptiste , and eventually lost Sabalgarh .
1-see Dr .G.H.Ojha’s account of the Vrttvilasa in the Ojha-nibandha -sangraha ,part 3 ,pp1ff.,and also below the next para but one.
2-Early Chauhan Dynasties by Sharma ,Dasharath ,.p103.
3-Rajputana -ka-Itihas by Gahlot ,J.S.pp .604-607
4-Karauli Khyat and Karauli Pothi.
5-Akabarnama, Vol.III ,pp.157 ,434 ,518.
6-Ain-i-Akbari ,Vol.I.pp .564,593.
7-Rajasthan district gazetteers-Sawaimadhopur by Savitri Gupta .Pp.29 ,35-42.
8-Gazetteer of the Karauli State by Cap.P.W.Powlett
9-Chiefs and Leading Families in Rajputana by C.S.Bailely.
10-Archeological Survey of India ,Vol.20 ,pp.3, 38
11-Imperial gazetteer of India ,Vol .15 ,p ,26-27,Karauli State.
12_Jadon Vansiyonka Itihas -Karauli ka Vijaypal ,No 19/27 ,Alwar Puralekhiy (Non -archival -Library Section)Rajasthan Archives Office ,Bikaner.
13-Yadav Vansho ka Itihas Sambat 867 Vikarmi se 1094 tak ,No 269 ,8/27 ,Alwar Puralekhiy (Non -archival -Library Section ),Rajasthan Archives Office ,Bikaner .
14-Jaisalmer Khyati ,op . cit.,p22.
15-James Tod ,Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan ,Vol.II.oxford 1920 ,p1182
Author. -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Aadmi
District-Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College Sawai madhopur ,Rajasthan ,322001..