Yadu ,Jadu or Jadon Lunar race Kshariya’s Dynasty – Mean ,History ,the regions they settled—-

Yadu ,Jadu or Jadon Lunar race Kshariya’s Dynasty  – Mean ,History ,the regions they settled—-

The Jadon clan , of the early history of which very little is known , claims descent from the Yadu or Jadon kings.These monarchs , who in early days wee very powerful ,took their name from Yadu ,the patronymic of the descendants of Bhuddha , the progenitor of the Lunar race.The capital of the Yadus are said to have been Pryag (Allahabad ) , and subsequently Mathura (Muttra ) .On the death of Shri Krishna , the deified hero of the house  ,the tribe was dispersed and many of its members , including two of Krishna’s sons, proceeded northwards beyond the Indus and settle there.
The tribe is especially illustrious as the representative of Buddha ,whose direct descendants are always regarded as Yadus.The descendants of Yadu are known as Yadavas (puranic) presently they are known as Jadons of Karauli ,Bhatis of Jaisalmer ,Jadeja and Chudasamah of Kutch/Bhuj and Joonagarh . The original name has become strangely corrupted , and the race is now seldom designated as Yadus or Yaduvansa  ,but commonly by the term Jadu, or Jadon , orJadubansi.

The origin of the name Jadon –

The word Jadon ,is traced by  Sir Henry Elliot to Yadu or Yadav,but it would perhaps be more correct to say that Jadon ,Jadu ,Jadava ,and Yadava are etymologically the same,the former being corruptions of the last. Dr Hornle has pointed out ,Jadon might be simply a corruption of Jadava as Badon is for Badava.The word Jadava was no longer current in vernacular speech and had been superseded by the hindi Jadu (Badu).which by itself would not admit of expansion in to Jadon (Badon).

Puranic Yadus /Yadavas (Sanskrit ) means in Hindi  is Jadus /Jadon.The modern Bhatis ,Jadons and Jadejah are the real yadus or Yadava clan of Lunar race kshatriyas .
According to Vasistha,the priest of Raja Sudas in his prayers to Indra says( Rv.VII, 19 , 8.) that  the Yadava and Turvasa evidently means the distant descendants of Yadu and Turvasu  of Lunar race kshatriy kings , sons of Maharaja Yayati and his wife Devayani respectively , for the word Yadava is admittedly a Vedic patronymic derived from Yadu , and the word Turvasa is a derivative of the Vedic word Turvas , {Turvas being the Vedic form which stands for the Puranic form Turvasu ; the form Turvasu also is some times used in the Rgveda} .same is in case of Yadava and Yadu .Lines other than those preserved in the Puranas existed , as each king was the father , not of one son only ,but of many sons ;in this way the Yadus and Turvasus multiplied into Tribes.The chiefs of these  tribes  were titled as Yadavas and Turvasa respectively.
Mahabharata says (Kumb MBh I ,79 ,42)
“It has been remembered that the Yavanas and Yadavas were the descendants of theTurvasu and Yadu ,the sons of Yayati Nahusa .” The Philologists declare that the “Y “in ‘Yavana or Yadava ‘ may be replaced by “J” ; that is both the form “Yavana ” and “Javana” , same as in” Yadava and Jadava ” are permissible and therefore the interchangeable.Javana even in later Sanskrit literature “one who possesses speed ” .Now the word Turvas also means “one who runs fast ” ; so that both the words Turvas and Javanas means same .Just as the Yadavas mean the descendants of Yadu   .So the Yavanas –the Javanas mean the descendants of Yavana (Turvasu ) .
The Jadu Rajputs are the dominant tribe of Karauli, which State they have
occupied from at least the 10th century, and probably from a much earlier period. The Jadon Rajputs are found in full possession of both Bayana and Mathura , the former under Vijaya Pala in A.D.1043 , and his son Tahan Pala , and under Ajaya Pala in A.D.1150.Nearly whole of Eastern Rajputana therfore former belonged to the Yaduvanshi ,or Jadon Rajputs .They held one-half of Alwar , with the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli ,and Dholpur , ne sides the British districts of Gurgaon ,Mathura , and the greater part of Agra to the west of the Jamuna.It seems probably also that they may have held some portions of the present Gwalior territory , lying along the Chambal River opposite Karauli .
The feudal aristocracy of that principality consists entirely of Jadus.No other Rajputs possess any rank whatever.  The Jadus prefer the affix pal, ‘ nourisher of cows,’ to the more general Rajpoot affix of Singh, meaning lion. They are said to be brave fighting men, but bad cultivators. Wherever the Jadu “ has to
compete with cultivators of other castes on equal terms, he manifests his inferiority ; and this is remarkably illustrated by the position of the Gonj, Khichri, and Ranch Pir Thakurs in Karauli, who, being out of the caste, are not allowed the advantages enjoyed by respectable Jadus .

The principal divisions or Kotris of the Karauli Jadus are the following : —

The Principal Jadu Clans.

1. Hadoti– This clan usually supplies an heir to the sovereignty of Karauli
on the failure of sons in the reigning family. Its chief bears the title of Rao.
The original seat of the clan was the neighbouring village of Gareri, which was left for Hadoti in 1697 in consequence of a dispute with the chief of Fathpur.

2. Amargarh-The first chief of Amargarh was Amar Man, son of Raja
Jago Man.

3. Inaiti– The first chief of this clan was Bhup Pal, son of the Maharaja
Chhatr Man.

4. Raontra –The first chief of this clan was Bhojpal .

5. Bartun-. The founder of this clan was Madan Man, son of the Maharaja
Mukund.

The five nobles representing the above five clans have forts of their own.

6. Hari Das.- This clan has sixteen divisions, which lie on the western
borders of the State.

7. Mukund. The Mukunds have eight divisions, their estates being situated
to the north-east of the city .

Anjani Devi-

Anjani is the patron goddess of the Jadus. The ancestors of this race founded Jesalmere, in the year 1157. This city is the present capital of the Bhatis.

The only Hindu descendants of the Yaduvansis at the present day are the Jadons of the small state of Karauli , to the west of the Chambal , and the Jadons of Sabalgarh , Sumawali.,Seopur , or Jadonvati , in the Gwalior territory to the east of that river .But the Musalmans of acknowledged Jadon descent from a very large portion of the population of Eastern Rajputana , from.Sohna and Alwar on the west to thebChambal on the east .and from.the bank of the Jamuna to Karauli and Sabal garh on the South. These Musalmans are known as the Khanzadahs and Meos.The Jadon Rajputs of Karauli have a tradition that, in the year 1120, their
ancestors erected the present fort at Dholpore. It is probable that they held
lands in that territory in those days, but they must have been soon dispossessed, especially as we know that in 1194 Shahab-ud-din took possession of the king- dom of Kanauj, of which there is reason to believe that it formed a part. Ghori took possession Bayana andTahangarh in 1196S.D.

The Jadus have considerable possessions in Dholpore, in which State they own forty -nine villages. They have some families also in Dungarpore.

Jadons in United Provinces

Some of the tribe , or at least professedly of the tribe , are Zamindars in the United Provinces –as the proprietors of the Talookas of Awa-Misa in Jalesar paragana , Umargarh , Okhara ,Narkhi ,Neemkhera ,Jaundhari ,in Etah district , Somna  ,      Birpura ,Gabhana , Kora-Rustampur ,  Ashrafpur Jalal ,Mangrauli ,  Panchon ,Baranadi , Banwaripur in Aligarh , and Kotila in firojabad pargana formerly in Agra district .These are many of them also found in Fattehabad and Shumsabad of Agra , Mustafabad and Ghiror in Mainpuri ; Suhar and Arecny in Muttra , Sohnuh in Gungaon ; and in Kole , Hasangarh , Gorai ,Jalali , Akrabad ,Sikandra rao and Khair in Aligarh .They are considered spirited farmers .The Jadons of Jewar in  Bulhandshahr are distinguished by the title of Chhokarzada .Porch ,Bangars , Baresir , Jyswar and Jasawat  are self-styled Jadons are found in some regions of Agra ,Mathura and in Mendu ,Hasayan ,Daryapur in Hathras district .The jadons are also found in some districts of Bundelkhand like Mahoba ,Banda ,Hamirpur ,Jalaun , Etawa , Kanpur and Kaushambi  etc.They are also found in Munger ,Bhagalpur , Banka districts of Bihar .
Gurgaon , with the rest of the territory known as Mewat , formed in early  times part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of the Jaduvansi or Jadon tribe .The Jadon power was broken by Muhammad Ghori in1196A.D; but for two centuries they sturdily resited the Muhammadan domination , and the history of the district is a record of incursions of the people of Mewat into Delhi territory and of punitive expeditions undertaken against them .Under Firoz Shah III the Jadons were converted to Islam ; and Bahadur Khan or Bahadur Nahar took a prominent part in the intesting struggles that followed the invasion of Timur , founding the family of the Khanzadas , members of which ruled Mewat in partial independence of the Delhi empire .Babar annexed Mewat , and from this time the power of the Kkanzadas rapidly decline .
Jadons are also found in Hosangabad ,whither they emigranted after Akber,s conquests on the Narmada . Several of the Jat tribes are also said to be Jadons and the Sinsinwal of Bharatpur are predominant among them one.

Bhatis—

These Rajputs are said to have established themselves on the Borwa hills of Merwara ; and a tradition exists, that a Bhati Rajpoot, Ajit Singh, once bore the title of king of Merwara. They are strong to the west of the Bikaneer State, where they are divided into two great clans, namely : —

The Bhati Clans of Bikaneer.

1. The Raolot Clans — consisting of nine branches.

2. The Pugalia Clans — consisting of four branches.

These thirteen branches have their chief seats at Poogul, Rajasir, Ranair,
Sutasir, Chakarra, Beechnok, Garrialah, Surjerah, Rundisir, Jangloo, Jaminsir,
Kudsu, and Naineah.

The Bhatis of Bhatner are most probably Hindus, who have been converted
to the Mahomedan faith. There is a colony of Bhatis in Marwar, and another
in Mallani.

The Yadu, Jadu, or Jadon Bhati Rajputs claim descent from the ancient
Yadu kings of the Lunar race. The remote ancestors of the Bhati Rajputs
came originally from Prayag or Allahabad, whence they removed to Mathura, from which place, after remaining there for a long period, the tribe dispersed in various directions.

The ruler of Jesalmere is of this tribe. The Bhatis informer times subdued all the tracts south of the Garah ; but their jurisdiction has been
greatly diminished by the encroachments of the Rathors. Some of the principal branches of the Bhatis in Jaisalmere are the following: —

Bhati  Clans of Jaisalmere.

1-The Maldots. , 2- The Barsangs.
3- The Kailans ,4- The Pohars ,5- The Tej matahs .

The Maldots, says Tod, have the character of being the most daring robbers of the desert. They are descended from Rao Maldeo, and possess the fief of Baroo
with eighteen villages. The chief seat of this tribe has been successively at
Tumoli, Deorawal, and Jaisalmere. Deorawal was founded by a Bhati chief in the ninth century. He delighted in warfare, and consolidated the Bhati rule in this barren region. So great were his exploits that he is regarded as the real
founder of the tribe. The city and fort of Jaisalmere were built in the middle of
the twelfth century by Jesal, the sixth rajah in descent from Deoraj. About the
year 1294 Alauddin sent an army against the Bhatis, which destroyed the city of Jesalmere; but it was afterwards re-built. The Jesalmere princes continued independent for several centuries, and only submitted to the Muhammedans in the reign of Shah Jehan, under Rawal Sabal Singh, the twenty-fifth chief in succession to Jesal. The territory then was more extensive than in any other period
of the nation’s history, including Bhawalpore, extending northwards to the Sutlej, westward to the Indus, and eastwards and southwards embraced much of the tract
subsequently added to Marwar and Bikaneer .

The Bhatis of Marwar hold the chieftainships of Khejurla and Ahore.
The Bhati, says Tod, “ is not perhaps so athletic as the Rathor, or so tall as
the Kachwaha, but generally fairer than either.”
References—
1-Shrimadbhagvatapurana.
2-Mahabharta .
3-Vishnupurana .
4-Harivanshpurana .
5-Gargasanhita.
6-Sakandapurana.
7-Krishna in History ,Thought and Culture :An Encyclopedia of HinduLord by Lavanya Vemsani .
8-Krishna Deities and Their Miracles by Stephen Knapp.
9-Meghdutam of Mahakavi Kalidas.
10-The life and Times of Krishna .byJ.B.Patro.
11-History of Ancient India.by J.P.Mittal
12-Krishna :A journey through the Lands and Legends of Krishna .By Dev Prasad.
13-The complete Life of Krishna .By Devi Vanamali .
14-The story of Ancient Dwaraka .By Devi Vanamala.
15-Braj Centre of Krishna Pilgrimage by A.W.Entwistle and Forsten ,E.1987.pp123 ,132.
16-Mathura: A District Memoir  by F .S.Growse .
17- Chiefs and Leading families of Rajputana .By C.S.Bayley.
18-Hand book of Rajputana by Captain A.H.Bingley.
19- Gazetteer of the Karauli State .By Percy Powlett ,1874.
20- Census Report of North-Western Provinces , for 1865 ,Vol.I .,pp.64 ,65.
21- Tod’s Rajasthan , Vol.I.Pp.85-87.
22- Wilson’s Glossary , p.57.
23 – Supplemental Glossary , Vol .I., p.51.p.129.
24- Raja Lachhman Singh , Bulandshahr Memo ,160 sq.
25-  Ibbetson ,Punjab Ethnography , section 446.
26 -Cunningham , Archeological Reports ,XX, 5sqq.
27-Crooke William C.A.1886 .The Tribes and Castes of North-Western India.Voll.I to V.
28-The Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North -West  Frontier section IV.by H.A.Rose.
29-Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-West .Vol 1.
30-Sherring M.A.Hindu Tribes and Castes .Vol.I to III.
Investing .Punjab Castes.
31-Statistical account of Bhavnagar by J.W.Watson ,Bombay ,1830 ,p.68.
32-Yaduvamsha Prakash ,pp.263-287
33-Bombay Gazetted ,Kathiyavad III ,p.554.
34-Ancient Indian Historical Tradition.by F.E.Pargiter ,1998.
35-Early History of Rajputs .By C.V.Vaidya.
36-Downfall of Hindu India.by C.V.Vaidya .
37-Prachin Bharat men Hindu Rajay.by Babu Vrindavan Das.
38-Prachin Bhartiya Itihas ka Vaidic Yug.by Satya ketu Vidhya.
39-Vraj ka Sanskritik Itihas part I.by Prabhu Dayal Mittal.
40-Vraj ka Itihas part I.by K.D.Bajpai.
41-Prachin Bharat ka Itihas .By Ramakant Tripathi.
42-Paninikalin Bharatvarsh .By Dr Vasudev Saran Agrawal.
43-Gahlot ,J.S.,Rajputana -ka-Itihas .
44-Jaisalmer Khyat .

Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh ,204216.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.

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