Yadu -Vansh History — ( Puranic Yadavas or Modern Jadons ) Lunar race Dynasty of Kshatriyas—
Yadu ,the Progenitor of the Jadon clans
Panini ( C.500B.C ) in this Ashtadhyayi mention some of the Yadu clans and their polity.The unable among them are the Vrsni-Andhkas (VI.2.34.) who are referred in the connection with the Rajanya leaders .The Kasika defines Rajanya as the member of such families in a Kshatriya tribe as were entitled to be consecrated to the rulership .
It is said that Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati ,the great -grandson of Pururvas Aila (who himself was a grandson of Manu Vaivasvata ) ,the progenitor of the Lunar race of the ancient Kshatriyas .Yayati was a great conqueror and emperor and the Mathura region seems to have been include in his empire .He nominated his youngest son as. succeesor to the thorne being displaced with yadu who ,however ,being a strong man ,proved himself to be the most capable of all his brothers .
The pedigree of Satvat is ;–1- Satvat , 2-Bhima ,3-Andhaka I, , 4-Raivat ,5-Rksa , 6-Visvagarbha , 7-Vasu , 8-Andhaka ii and 9 –Dhrsnu .
1-Satvat –Satrughna , the younger brother of Lord Rama , defeated Satvat and captured Mathura .Shubahu , the son of Satrughan , ruled Mathura .
2-Bhima —He was son of Satvat .Bhima recaptured Mathura from Shubhau .
3 Andhaka —He was son of Bhima .
4-Raivat –He was son of Andhaka i.
5-Rksa iv—He was son of Raivat .
6-Visvagarbha- He was son of Rksa iv .
7-Andhaka –He was married with daughter of Kashi king Drdhasva .Andhaka ii had two sons from her ; 1-Kukura and 2- Bhajamana .
Kukura– He was son of Andhaka ii .His predigree is –Kukur ,Vrshani ,Kapotarma ,Tittiri ,Punarvasu ,Abhijita , Dhrsnu ,Ahuka and Ahuki (daughter ) ,Devaka ,Devaki ,Ugrasena ,Kansa .
Vrashni– He was son of Kukura .
Kapotarma – He was son of Vrashni .
Tittiri- He was son of Kapotarma .
Punarvasu- He was son of Tittiri .
Abhijita—He was the grandson of Punarvasu .
Ahuka –He was son of Abhijita .Ahuka had two sons , Ugrasena and Devak .Ahuki was daughter of Abhijita and she was married with the king of Avanti .
Devaka was son of Ahuka .He had three sons ,1-Updeva ,2-Sudeva and 3-Devraksit .He had seven daughters namely ,1- Devaki , 2- Sudeva ,3-Sanideva ,4-Devraksita , 5-Vrakdevi , 6-Updevi , and 7-Sunasi .All these seven daughters of Devak were married to Vrashni prince Vasudeva , the son of Sura , the ruler of Surasena Mandal at Bateshwar on the river Yamuna in Agra district .Lord Shri Krishna was son of Devaki and Vasudeva .
Ugrasena –He was son of Ahuka .Ugrasena was ruler of Mathura Mandal .His capital was Mathura .This region was under the ruler of Andhaka vanshi yadavas since a long time .Ugrasena had ten sons and five daughters .Sons are as follows-1-Kansa ,2-Nayagrodh ,3-Kank ,
4-Subhuti , 5-Sunama ,6-Shanku , 7-Rashtrapala , 8-Pustimana , 9-Anadhrsti and 10-Sutantu .
Raja Ugrasena had 5 daughters ;1- Kansa , 2-Kanka ,3-Kansvati , 4-Surbhu , 5-Rashtrapali .
All of them were married with the younger brothers of Vrashni Vasudeva ,son of Sura .Kansa was married to Devabhaga and had three sons , 1-Chitraketu , 2-Brahadbala iii and 3- Udhava .Kansavati was married to Devasrava and she had two sons namely ,1-Suvir and 2-Eshuman .Kanka was married to Aanak and had two sons ; 1- Satyajit , and 2-Purujit .Rashtrapali was married with Sranjya and had many sons ; 1-Vraks and 2- Durmarshan and others .Surbhu was married to Sayamak and had two sons ;1-Hiranyaks and 2-Harikesh .
History of Kansa Birth—
Kansa was eldest son of Ugrasena , Yaduvanshi Andhak clan ruler of Mathura .Raja Ugrasena did not have any issue for four years .His wife Chitra was very brave .One day she went into the forest to hunt , met Drumil Raksas the king of the adjoining state , who forcibly had sexual relation with her and she was pregnant and after some time Kansa was borned .There after Ugrasena had nine more sons and five daughters .Kansa was separate frocm his brothers in respect of physique .He was married with two daughters of Magadh king Jarasandh ,namely 1- Asti and 2-Prapti.But Kansa did not have any issue from them .Kansa , however ,loved his cousin sister , Devaki .Magadh Kingh Jarasandha did not like that Kansa should have any relation with Yadavas and Devaki .The astrologer had predicted that the eighth child of Devaki would be the cause of Kansa,s death .Narada kept eight balls in a circle and convinced Kansa that the eighth child could be any of her eight children .Kansa imprisoned both Devaki and Vasudeva and started killing all her children for fear of death .When his father Ugrasena , advised him against killing all the children of Devaki , he put him also in prison and became the ruler of Mathura and Bateshwar with the help of Magadh king Jarasandha .Shri Krishna the eighth son of Devaki and Vasudeva killed Kansa .In the fight all the other nine brothers of Kansa were also killed .
Bhajamana —-Bhajmana was son of Andhaka ii .His predigree is –Bhajmana , Viduratha , Sura ,Sonasva , Sami , Pratiksatra , Swayambhoja , Hardik , Satadhanva , and Krtvarma .
Kartvarma –He was descendant of Bhajmana .Krtvarma faught in the Mahabharta war for the Kauravas .He had a son namely ,Bali who was married with Charumati , the daughter of Rukmni and Shri Krishna .
Dhrsnu /Varashni —
He was grandson of Punarvasu . Madri and Gandhari were his two wives .He had four sons namely , 1-Anamitra ii ,2-Yudhajit , 3-Anaruta and 4-Devamidhusa. Anamitra was from Gandhari and others were from Madri .
Anamitra ii- Anamitra,s pedigree is ; 1-Nighna , 2-Prasena , 3-Satrajita .
Yudhajit- –Yudhajit pedigree is ; 1-Svaphalaka , and Akrura .
Akrura was son of Svaphalka .He was the leader of Andhakas and was prime minister of Mathura .
Anaruta –His pedigree is ;1-Sini , 2-Satyaka and 3-Yuyudhana or Satyaki .
Satrajit –He was the grandson of Anamitra and the son of Nighna .His wife and mother of Kratvarma were real sisters .He had a son ,Bhankar and a daughter Satyabhama , who was married to Shri Krishna .
Yuyudhana or Satyaki – He was son of Satyaka .Yuyudhana was also known as Satyaki , was the friend and disciple of Arjuna who faught with Pandavas in Mahabharta War.
He was son ofVarashni / Dhrsnu ,married with Asmaki .His pedigree is –Sura ,Vasudeva ,Shri Krishna and Balarama .
Sura or Shoorasena —
Sura had ten sons -1- Vasudeva , 2-Devabhaga , 3-Devasrava ,4-Vrak ,5-Syamak ,6-Kank ,7-Vatsak ,8-Aanak , 9-Sranjaya , and 10- Shamik .
He has five daughters namely ,1-Pratha ( Kunti ) , 2-Srutkirti , 3-Rajadhidevi ,4-Srutadeva, 5-Srurasarva .
Vasudeva was son of Sura .He had fourteen wives .Seven were the daughters of Devaka , the brother of Ugrasena descent of Andhaka .
Other seven wives of Vasudeva were -1-Rohini ,2- Indra , 3- Vaisakhi , 4-Bhadra , 5-Sunamni , 6- Sutanu ,and 7- Vadava . All these seven wives of Vasudeva were belonged to Pauravas or Paurav clan .
She was daughter of Andhak vanshi Devaka , brother of Ugrasena .Devaki gave eight sons .Kansa the king of Mathura ,was her cousin brother , killed seven sons of Devaki .The eighth son was Shri Krishna who was brought up by Yasoda and Nanda , who was the cowhed chief of Gokul near Mathura .Shri Krishna was most famous and the most honoured personage of Ancient India .Being the son of Vrashni clan prince Vasudeva , he is sometimes known as Vasudev Krishna .
Rohini was daughter of Paurava clan king of Bahlika ( Punjab ) .She gave birth to eight sons and two daughters -1-Balarama ,2- Gada , 3- Durdama , 4- Sarana , 5-Sawabhra , 6-Pindarka , 7-Ushinara , and 8-Damna .
She had two daughters namely ,1-Chitra and 2-Subhadra .Subhdra was married with Arjuna son of Kunti and a bosom friend of Lord Shri Krishna .Gada married with Chandravati , the daughter of Demon Vajranabha .
The other sons of Vasudeva were ,1- Bhoja , 2-Gaya ,3-Vijay and 4- Vakdeva .
He was son of Sura and younger brother of Vasudeva .Devabhaga was married with Kansa ,the sister of Kansa .He had three sons -1-Uddhava ,2- Chitraketu ,and 3- Brahadbala .
Uddhava was a very learned Pandit ( scholar ) and very closed friend of Shri Krishna .Uddhava was married to Pingla and Kapila , the Naga Princesses of Nagkut .Aryak,s son was Kakortakand his son Maniman .Kakortak had two daughters ,1-Pnigla and 2-Kapila .Uddhava was son of Devabhaga and grandson of Sura .
Shri Krishna –
Lord Shri Krishna was eighth son of Devaki and Vasudeva in Vrashni clan of Yaduvansis Kshatriya .He had 16108 wives including eight main wives Rukmani and Satyabhama and a large family of fifty –six clan .Krishna –Vasudeva ,a scion of the Vrishni family ,killed Kansa .
The Andhakas and Vrishnis are referred to in the Ashtadhyayi of Panini .In the Kautiliya Arthasastra , the Vrishnis are described as a Sangha , i.e ,a republican corporation .The Mahabharata , too refers to the Vrishnis ,Andhakas and other associate tribes as a Sangh , and Vasudeva , the Vrishni tribe ,as a Sangha- mukhya ( Elder ). The name of Vrishni corporation has also been preserved by a uniwue coin .It is stated in the Mahabharata and the Puranas that Kansa , like Peisistratus and other the Greek history ,tried to make himself tyrant at Mathura by over –powering the Yadavas ,and that Krishna –Vasudeva , a scion of the Vrishni family , killed him .
Lord ShriKrishna’s Family
Shri Krishna married eight queens. Later on Krishna rescued 16, 100 princess from the captivity of one demon .These entire princesses requested Krishna to marry them. Lord Krishna obliged them and married to all of them . he expanded Himself into 16,108 and used to live
Simoultaneouslly with all of them in 16,108 palaces in Dwarka . Each wife on average has 10 sons.
The name of main eight wives of Krishana are as follows ….
The daughter of king Bhishmak of Kundanpur belong Vidarbha branch of Yaduvansha .Raja vidarbha was from the same period of king Sagar of Ikshvaku vansha .Ten sons ,Prince Pradumna ,charudeshna .Sudeshna ,Mahavali ,Sushena ,Charugupt ,Charubahu ,Charuvind ,Sucharu ,Bhadrachuru and Charu .
One daughter was born ,her name was Charumati ,married with Bali son of Bhojavanshi yadava Kritivarma who was faught with Kurvas in Mahabharta War.
She was a daughter of Jamvanta , a brave Vanarraj in period of Lord Rama .She born ten sons ,Samba .Sumitra ,Purujit , Shtajita ,Sahstrajit ,Vijay ,Chitraketu ,Vasuman ,Dravid ,Kratu and one daughter named Mitravati .
3. Satyabhama –
She was a Vrashni yadava princess and daughter of Shatrajeeta .She born ten sons like Bhanu ,Chandrabhanu ,Vrahadbhanu ,Atibhanu ,Shribhanu,Pratibhnu ,Jarandham and one daughter named Mitravati.
4.Satya [Nagnjite] –
She was daughter of king Nagnjit of Kaushalpur [Ayodhya ].She born ten sons like ,Virchandra ,Ashavsen ,Chitrgu ,Vegavana ,Vrash ,Aam ,Shanku ,Vasu ,Shreemana ,Kunti and one daughter named Bhadravati .
5. Kalindi –
She was daughter of Aaaditya [surya] lived in Yamuna water.She born ten sons such as Shrut ,Vrash,Kavi, Subahu ,Bhadra ,Aekal ,Shantidarsh ,Purnmash ,and Somaka .
6. Lakshmana –
She was daughter of Brahtsena king of Madra Desha.Give born ten sons like Praghosha , Matravana ,Singh ,Bala ,Prabal ,Udhvarga ,Mahashkti ,Oaja ,Sah and Aparajita .
7. Mitravinda –
She was daughter of Krishna’s Buaa Rajadhidevi .Her father was Jaysena king of Avanti [Ujjen] .She had ten sons ,Vraka ,Harsha ,Anila ,Gradha ,Vardhana ,Unnada ,Mahasha ,Pavana ,Vahina ,and Kshudi .
She was daughter of Shrutkirti sister of Vasudeva and Krishna’s Buaa.Her father was Kaikaya king Dhrshtketu and had ten sons ,Sangramjit ,Brahtsena ,Shoor ,Prahrana ,Arijita ,Jaya ,Subhdra ,Vaam ,Aayu and Satyaka.
Sons of Shri Krishna
There are thirteen sons in all were great werriors in that period incliding Pradumna ,Charudeshna ,Saamb ,Diptimana ,Bhanu , Madhu ,Chitrabhanu ,Vraka ,Kavi, Chitrabaahu ,Brahadbhanu ,Shrutadeva ,and Sunandan known in all world are famous.
Samb son of Jambavanti was married with Lakshmana daughter of Duryodhana of Kaurva vansha of Hastinapura.He was also married with Gunvati daughter of demon Vajranabha .Samb was also married with daughter of Kushmanda in dwarika.
Gad was also married with daughter of Sunabha brother of Vajranabha demon .
Pradumna—He was married with Rukmvati [also Subhangi in Harbamsa purana ,Vishnu purana also ]daughter of Rukmani’s brother Rukmi of Kundanpur in Vidarbha desa.They born Anirudha.
Aniruddha was married with Usha daughter of Vanasura also married with Rochana [ Subhadra in Vishnu Purana ] grand daughter of Rukmi brother of Rukmani and Vajranabha was born.Vjranabha has son Pratibahu ,Pratibahu’s son Subahu,Subahu’s son Shantsena ,Shantsena;s son was Shatsena
He was son of Rohini and Vasudeva .Balrama was married with Revati , the daughter of king Raivata ,and had two sons ,1-Nishatha and 2- Ulmuka .Bala-bhadra and Bala-deva are other forms of this name Bala –rama .the elder brother of Shri Krishna .When Krishna is regarded as a full manifestation of Vishnu , Bala-rama is recognized as the seventh Avatara or incarnation in his place .According to this view , which is the favourite one of the Vaishnavas , Krishna is a fully divinity and Bala-rama an incarnation ; but the story of their birth , as told in the Mahabharata , places them more upon an equality .It says that Vishnu took two hairs , a white and a black one , and that these became Bala-rama and Krishna , the children of Rohini and Devaki wives of Vrashni prince Vasudeva Yaduvanshi Kshatriya of Bateshwar in Surasen Mandal on the bank of Yamuna river in Agra district .Balarama was fair complexion , Krishna was very dark . As soon as Bala-rama was born ,he was carried away to Gokul to preserve his life from the tyrant Kansa , and he was there nurtured by Cowherd chief Nanda of Gokul as a child of Rohini .He and Krishna grew up together , and he took part in many Krisha,s boyish freaks and adventures .His earliest exploit was the killing of the great Asura Dhenuka ,who had the form of an ass .This demon attack him , but Bala-rama seized his assailant , whirled him round by his legs till he was dead , and cast his carcase into a tree .Another Asura attempted to carry off Bala-rama on his shoulders , but the boy beat out the demon’s brains with his fists .When Krishna went to Mathura , Balarama accompanied him , and manfully supported him till Kansa was killed .
Once ,when Bala-rama was intoxicated , he called upon the Yamuna river to come to him , that he might bathe ; but his command not being heeded , he plunged his ploughshare into the river , and dragged the waters withersoever he went , until they were obliged to assume a human form and beseech his forgiveness .This action gained for him the title Yamuna –bhid and Kalindi-karshana , breaker or dragger of the Yamuna .He killed Rukmin in a gambling brawl .
When Samba , son of Krishna , was detained as a prisoner at Hastinapur by Dur-yodhana , Bala-rama demanded his release , and being refused , he thrust hi ploughshare under the ramparts of the city , and drew then towards him , thus compelling the Kauravas to give up their prisoner .Lastly , he killed the great ape Dwivida , who had stolen his weapons and derided him .
Such are some of the chief incidents of the life of Bala-rama , as related in the Puranas , and as popular among the votarics of Krishna .In Mahabharata he has more of a human character . He taught both Dur-yodhana and Bhima the use of the mace .Through inclining to the side of the Pandavas , he refused to take an active part either with them or the Kaurvas .He witnessed the combat between Dur-yodhana and Bhima , and beheld the foul blow struck by the latter , which made him so indignant that he seized his weapons , and was with difficulty restrained by Krishna from falling upon the Pandavas .He died just before Krishna ,as he sat under a banyan tree in the outskirts of Dwaraka .
Another view is held as to the origin of Bala-rama .According to this he was an incarnation of the great serpent Sesha ,and when he died the serpent is said to have issued from his mouth .He was also irascible in temper , and some times quarreled even with Krishna ; the Puranas represent them as having serious differences about the Syamantaka jewel .
Bala-rama is represented as of fair complexion , and as Nila –vastra , ‘clad in a dark-blue vest .’ His especial weapons are a club ( Khetaka or saunanda ) ,the ploughshare ( hala ) , and the pestle ( musala ) ,from which he is called Phala and Hala , also Hala-yudha , ‘plough-armed ;’ Hala-bhrit , ‘plough-bearer ; ‘ Langaliand Sankarshana , ‘ploughman ;’and Musal , ‘pestle-holder .’ As he has a palm for a banner , he is called Tala-dhwaja .Other of his appellations are Gupta-chara , ‘who goes secretly ; ,Kampala and Samvartaka .
She was daughter of king Raivata and wife of Bala-rama .She was so beautiful that her father , thinking no one upon earth worthy of her ,repaired to the God Brahma to consult him about a husband .Brahama delivered a long discourse on the glories of Vishnu , and directed Raivata to proceed to Dwaraka , where a portion of Vishnu was incarnate to earth , ‘’ he found the race of men dwindled in stature , reduced in vigour , and enfeebled in intellect .’’ He went to Bala-rama and gave him Revati ,but that hero , ‘’beholding the damsel of excessively lofty height , he shorte.
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Author-Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village-Larhota near Sasni
District-Hathras ,Uttar Pradesh ,204216.
Associate Prof in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudaman Singh Govt.College ,Sawai madhopur ‘Rajasthan ,322001.