Yaduvansis (Ancient /Pauranic Yadavas or Modern Jadons ) of Lunar race Kshatriya’s of Bayana .

Yaduvansis (Ancient Yadavas or modern Jadons ) of Lunar Race Kshatriya’s of Bayana–

History of Ancient Period-

The Yaduvansis ,of course ,are real descent  from Krishna the acknowledged lord of Mathura after death of Kansa .The early history ,therefore , consists of a number of the popular tales of Krishna derived from Mahabharata and many Purans .

The Jadon clan ,of the early history of which very little is known ,claims descent from the Yadu or Jadon kings.These monarchs ,who in early days were very powerful ,took their name from Yadu or Jadu ,the patronymic of the descendants of Budha , the progenitor of the lunar race .The capitals of the Jadons are said to be Prayag (Allahabad ) ,and subsequently Mathura (Muttra ) .On the death of Sri Krishna ,the deified hero of the house ,the tribe was dispersed . One of his descent Vajranabh (Great grand son of Shri Krishana ) settled from Dwarika to Mathura by Arjuna .Some of Shri Krishna’s descendants were settled in Punjab after it they migrated in desert of Rajputana ,their first capital was at Tanot still in Jaisalmer territory and called Jadon Bhati.Some settled from Punjab to Kachche ,Bhuj and other districts of Gujrat called Jadeja ,Savaiya , Chudasama , Rayjada .Some settled in Maharashtra and Karnataka ,they are called Jadhava and Vadiyar yaduvanshi .

Mediaeval Period—
   
At the time of Hwen Thsang ‘s visit ,in A.D.635 , the king of Mathura was not a Kshatriya  ,but only a few centuries later the Jadon Kshatriyas are found in full possession of both Mathura and Bayana former under Dharma Pala ,the 77th in descent from Krishna  according to the list of the chroniclers .His probabl date is about 800 A.D.He and his successors are said to have resided in Bayana .Dharma Pala was the first who bears the name of Pala ,which has descended in the family of the Karauli Rajas and all others Jadons to the present day .The latter time under Ichchhapala (A.D.879) , Jaitpala or Jaiyendra Pala in A.D. 900 ,Vijaya Pala in A.D .995   and his son Tahan Pala A.D.1058 , and after this Ajay Pala in A.D.1150.
Nearly the whole of Eastern Rajputana therefore formerly belonged to the Yaduvanshi , or Jadon Kshatriya .They hold one -half of Alwar ,with the whole of Bharatpur ,Karauli  and Dholpur ,besides the British districts of Gurgaon ,Mathura ,and greater part of Agra to the west of the Jamuna .It seems probably also that they may have held some portions of the present Gwalior territory ,lying along the Chambal River opposite Karauli.In eastern  rajputana the principal races who have held these countries are the Lunar Yaduvansis and the Solar Nikumbhas in ancient times and in latter days the Khanzadahs and Meos .
To the north -east of Mewat lay the kingdom of the Yaduvansis (a yadu dynasty ) called the country of Surasenas or Surasena Janpad.Kaman ,Mathura , and Bayana were all in Surasena in ancient times with its capital at Sripatha ,latter known as Bayana.A surasena dynasty ruling here inV 1012 (A.D.955 ) .When this line was replaced by a junior branch of the family ,the latter perhaps chose to designate itself as Seuna ,just to distinguish itself from the defunct branch .
The genealogy of this family ,as reconstructed with the help of inscriptions and two literary sources the Vrttavilas of Yadunath and the Kharataragacchapattabli of Jina pala ,can be given as follows :
1-Jaitrapala ,2-Vijayapala ,3-Tihunapala ,4-Dharmapala , 5-Kunwarpala I ,6-Maharajadhiraja Ajayapala (1151A.D.) ,7-Haripala (A.D.1170) :he is called Hirapala in Vrttavilasa , 8-Sahanpala (A.D.1191 ), 9-Kunwarpala II (1196 A.D.) he is not mentioned in the Vrttavilasa .
The Vrttavilas begins it’s account with Vijayapala in the family of Krishna .He was succeeded by Tihunapala  ,the founder of Tribhuvanagiri  ,a fort identified withTahangarh about 23 Kns north of Bayana .He is mentioned as having performed many sacrifices and given large some of money in charity .The next two rulers were Dharmapala and Kunwar pala .Of these the latter is known to have come in to contect with Jinadatta Suri (1112-54 A.D.) of the Kharataragaccha sect.Kunwarpala’s son ,Ajay pala , who is given the title of Maharajadhiraj in the Mahaban prasasti of V1208 (A.D.1151 ) might have been the ambitious Bhadanaka ruler described as deprived of his bha or “lustre”by the Chahamana ruler Vigraharaja IV of Ajmer .But this defeat was not very serious . Bhadankas fighting once again against the Chahmans . Ajayapala ‘s interest in Jainism can be inferred from the name Ajayarajavihara given to a monastery of Tribhuvanagiri where Jain scholars like Vinayacandra stayed and composed their works .
Haripala too is known by an inscription from Mahaban .It is dated V 1227 (A.D.1170 ) .His successor Sahanpala , who was on the throne in 1192 A.D.is know from an image inscription of that year found at Aghapur in old Bharatpur state .Perhaps he is the Bhadanaka ruler who came into conflict with the Chahmans rulerbPrthviraja III shortly before V 1230 (A.D.1182 ). The next Seuna ruler was probably Kunwar pala II.When Muhammad Ghori captured Bayana , he took refuge in the fort of Tahangarh .But the invader captured this too and handed it over to one of his commander Bahauddin Turghril .This is corroborated by the Jindattacarita of Lakshmana who had to leave the fort and roam about till he reached Bilrampur .The Vrttavilasa does not mentioned him .Instead , it gives the name of Anagapala who might have been the younger brother of Kunwarpala II .However ,since genealogists very often leave out the name of the rulers not in the direct line of succession , it is easy to explain the absence of Kunwarpala’s name from the bardic genealogy referred to above Karauli , the capital of the erstwhile state of this name in Rajasthan ,was founded in V 1405 (A.D.1348 )by Arjun pala who , according to the Vrttavilasa ,was a descendant of Anagapala . Anangapala may be taken to have ascend the throne after Kunwar pal II . Anagapala was followed in succession by Prthvipala ,Rajpala  and Trilokpala ,the last of whole may be placed at the end of the thirteenth century A.D.

After the death of Qutb-uddin Aibak ,the Muslim hold over Bayana weakened due to the revival of the power of the dethroned rulers but Iltutmish again subdued them by storming Bayana and Tahangarh.The Jadava dynasty of Bayana and Tahangarh ,being depcived of their strongholds and territories ,migrated to other adjacent territories and it is not unlikely that a scion of this family established himself at Karkrala or Karkaralagiri.Later on his descendants came to be known as the Yadavas/Jadavas  Jadus or Yadus or modern Jadons of Karauli .

References —

1-Gazetter of the Karauli State by Percy Powlett ,1874 .
2-The Chiefs and Leading Families in Rajputana by C.S.Bayley.
3-Rajasthan Through the Ages by Sharma ,Dasharath ,. 1966 ,. page 697-698.
4-A Comprehensive History of India Vol V ,
5-Early Chauhan Dynasties,Delhi (1959)  by Sharma , Dasharatha .
6-Rajasthan District Gazetteers :Sawai madhopur by Savitri Gupta ..
7-Veer Vinod by Kaviraja Shyamal Das .
8-Rajputana ka Itihaas by Mm.G.H.Ojha.
9-Bhandarkar’s List of North Indian Inscriptions ,No.71 ,1849.
10-The Bayana Inscription of the year ,PRAS.WC.,1918 ,pp43.
11-Karauli Khyat ; Archeological Survey of India ,Vol.20 ,pp 3 ,38
12-Rajputana -ka -Itihas by Gahlot ,J .S.
13-Rajputana Gazetteer ,Bill III,Karauli State .
14-Imperical Gazetteer of India ,Vol .VII ,Oxford (1901) p.137.,also A.S.Altekar’s.
15-ibid ., Vol .V (.1957),p 120.
16-Dr G.H.Ojha’s account of the Vrttavilasa in the Ojha-nibandha -sangraha .,part 3 ,pp.1ff.,and also the next para but one.
17-Hand book on Rajputs by Cap.A H .Hongey.1899.
18-Sherring M.A.The Tribes and Castes of Rajasthan together with description of the sacred and operated places of historical value in Raj.
19-Crooke ,W.The Castes and Tribes of the Northern -Western .Vol .I to IV.
20-Elliot ,S.H.M . Supplementary glossary of terms used in the Northern -Western Provinces.
21-Cunningham , Report of A tour in eastern Rajputana in 1882-83.pp.6-7.
22-Braj Centre of Krishna Pilgrimage by A.W.Entwistle and Forsten ,E.1987.pp123 ,132.
23-Mathura: A District Memoir  by F .S.Growse .
24-Braj ka Sanskritik Itihas bhag I by Prabhu Dayal Mittal.

Author -Dr Dhirendra Singh Jadaun
Village -Larhota near Sasni
District -Hatharas ,Uttar Pradesh .
Associate Professor in Agriculture
Shahid Captain Ripudman Singh Govt.College , Sawaimadhopur ,Rajasthan ,322001 .

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